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    2013 – 2014 Annual Report

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS Letter from the Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PacTrans Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Highlights from 2013-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 PacTrans Welcomes New Faculty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Research Success Stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 UTC Spotlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Research Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Outreach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Technology Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Funding and Expenditures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inside back cover

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    Letter from the Director I am excited to report that, over the past year, solid progress has been made toward our goal of making PacTrans the research engine, applied technology showcase, workforce development base, educational leader, information center, and collaboration platform for Region 10 . Highlights of our major activities in the 2013-2014 fiscal year are as follows: PacTrans enhanced its regional leadership by organizing several important events including the Region 10 Transportation Conference, Region 10 Student Conference, and Region 10 Transportation Safety Workshop . A variety of issues were discussed at these events and critical transportation issues in Region 10 were identified . Additionally, three Region 10 Transportation Seminars were conducted with important transportation topics addressed by internationally recognized speakers . Hundreds of people attended these events collectively . All of the 22 research projects funded in the 2012 – 2013 fiscal year were completed, and those funded in the 2013 – 2014 year are progressing as expected . We are now in the final stage of the 2012 – 2013 research report review and publication . Findings of these research projects will be presented and demonstrated at the upcoming 2014 Region 10 Transportation Conference scheduled on October 17 . We expect the conference to offer a great platform for prospective technology users to interact with PacTrans researchers for potential technology transfer activities . Representatives from technology transfer offices of the PacTrans consortium universities are invited to join the conference so that they can interact directly with our PIs and the potential technology users . Technology transfer funds will be made available to facilitate the process for the most promising technologies . Another important focus was student support . In addition to the continued support to PacTrans fellow students and student outreach activities, funds were allocated for student intern and travel support . For example, more than 30 students received travel support from PacTrans to attend the 2014 Transportation Research Board (TRB) Annual Meeting and PacTrans researchers delivered 85 technical presentations at the conference . Furthermore, consistent efforts were made to grow our partnership network . Ten new industry and agency partners joined our network . Several international connections were made with countries in Europe and Asia for potential research and educational collaborations in transportation . You will find more information about PacTrans’ activities in this PacTrans Annual Report . Our goal is a report that is informative and useful to both internal and external readers . We also hope that it will bring to light every milestone we have reached with your great support . We welcome any suggestions or feedback you may have on our work and highly appreciate your continued support! Sincerely yours, Yinhai Wang, PhD, Professor DIRECTOR OF PACTRANS 2013-2014 Annual Report 1

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    PacTrans Center The Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium (PacTrans) is the University Transportation Center (UTC) for Region 10. PacTrans continues to function as the UTC for Region 10 with the new grant of $5.2 million received in 2014 from the US Department of Transportation (USDOT) with a focus on transportation safety. We are a coalition of transportation professionals and educators from Oregon State University (OSU), the University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF), University of Idaho (UI), Washington State University, (WSU) and the University of Washington (UW). PacTrans focuses on using technological advances to develop data-driven, sustainable solutions for the diverse transportation needs of the Pacific Northwest. Major goals and objectives of PacTrans include serving as Region 10’s research engine, applied technology showcase, workforce development base, education leader, information center, and collaboration platform. MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE The University of Washington serves as the lead institution in the basis to discuss matters pertaining to PacTrans research, PacTrans consortium . The PacTrans Center is located at More 112 education, outreach, workforce development, and technology on the UW campus . Dr . Yinhai Wang, Professor of transportation transfer . engineering in the Civil and Environmental Engineering The PacTrans External Advisory Board (EAB), which is composed Department, serves as Director of PacTrans . The management of nine members, includes directors from the research offices structure of PacTrans includes the director and staff, Board of of the state DOTs in Region 10 and representatives from other Directors, and an External Advisory Board . transportation agencies, private industries, and communities . The PacTrans Board of Directors includes the PacTrans center The role of the EAB is to provide input on PacTrans’ strategic director and associate directors from all five consortium planning and outreach activities . universities . The Board of Directors meets in person on a quarterly PACTRANS OPERATIONS TEAM FOR 2013-2014 FISCAL YEAR Yinhai Wang, Director; Professor, UW Civil and Environmental Melanie Paredes, Interim Program Assistant, Engineering Department, (206) 616-2696, yinhai@uw .edu (206) 221-9290 melqcp@uw .edu Linda Boyle, Associate Director of Research; Professor, UW Industrial and Systems Engineering Department and UW Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, (206) 616-0245, linda@uw .edu Maria Bayya, Assistant Director, Matthew Dunlap, PacTrans Student Taskforce (206) 685-6648, bayyam@uw .edu Leader, mkdunlap@uw .edu Elysse Reyna, Communications Manager, Kristian Henrickson, PacTrans Graduate (206) 685-3894 elysse@uw .edu Assistant, henr2237@uw .edu 2 Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium

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    BOARD OF DIRECTORS FOR EXTERNAL ADVISORY BOARD FOR 2013-2014 FISCAL YEAR 2013-2014 FISCAL YEAR Yinhai Wang, Director at University of Carolyn Morehouse, Chief of Research, Washington Development and Technology Transfer, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities Linda Boyle, Associate Director of Michael Bufalino, Research Manager, Oregon Research at University of Washington Department of Transportation (ODOT) Chris A. Bell, Associate Director at Oregon Scott Drumm, Manager of Research & State University Strategic Analysis Dept ., Port of Portland, Portland, Oregon Ken Casavant, Associate Director at Charlie Howard, Director of Integrated Washington State University Planning, Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC) Billy Connor, Associate Director at the Wayne Kittelson, Principal, Kittelson & University of Alaska, Fairbanks Associates, Inc . Mark Hallenbeck, Associate Director of Edward Mantey, Vice President of Toyota Outreach, University of Washington Vehicle Planning, Corporate Strategy, Technical Administration Anne Vernez-Moudon, Associate Director Rhonda Brooks, Acting Director of Research of Education, University of Washington and Library Services, Washington State Department of Transportation Ahmed Abdel-Rahim, Associate Ned Parrish, Research Program Manager for Director at the University of Idaho the Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) Jerry Whitehead, Chairman of the Idaho Transportation Board 2013-2014 Annual Report 3

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    Highlights from 2013-14 PACTRANS AWARDED $5.2M TO CONTINUE REGION 10 STUDENT CONFERENCE AS USDOT REGION 10 UTC PacTrans and the University of Washington Student Chapter of The U .S . Department of Transportation announced June 18, the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) jointly sponsored 2014 that the University of Washington will receive $5 .2 the Region 10 Student Conference on October 19, 2013 . Organized million in funding for the Pacific Northwest Transportation by and for students from Region 10 schools, students selected Center (PacTrans) to continue serving as the USDOT Region three topic areas to focus on: data-based research, sustainability 10 University Transportation Center . The funding, which local and the environment, and human factors in transportation . Randy and regional agencies matched for a total of $10 .4 million, will McCourt, the president of DKS Associates, delivered the keynote support the center’s focus on enhancing the safety of road speech, challenging student attendees to find and focus on aspects users, transportation infrastructure and system operations in of transportation where their passions lie . the Pacific Northwest . PACTRANS REGION 10 CONFERENCE The PacTrans Annual Conference on October 18, 2013, “Transportation Decision Making in the Big Data World,” drew more than 160 participants representing Northwest transportation agencies, universities, and private-sector organizations from Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington . The conference allowed transportation leaders to review and update critical transportation PACTRANS HOSTS TRANSPORTATION issues for Region 10 and afforded PacTrans researchers a forum SAFETY WORKSHOP to share research ideas on data-driven solutions to transportation problems . PacTrans also showcased its research products for More than 40 attendees representing the PacTrans Consortium potential applications and technology transfer . Keynote speakers universities and public and private agencies from Alaska, Idaho, included Dr . Kumares Sinha, Purdue University, and Cam Oregon, and Washington met on December 9, 2013 at the Gilmour, Deputy Secretary, Washington State Department of Talaris Conference Center near the University of Washington Transportation . campus in Seattle. The program focused on safe road users, safe infrastructure, and safe operations. The goal was to gather input from all stakeholders to inform the direction of future PacTrans transportation safety research and workforce development activities. Clockwise from top left: Dr. Kumares Sinha, professor emeritus, Purdue University; Dr. Yinhai Wang, PacTrans director, welcomes conference attendees; Cam Gilmore, deputy secretary, Washington State PACTRANS AND WASHINGTON ITE HOST Department of Transportation CO-SPONSORED SAFETY MEETING On March 18, 2014 PacTrans and the Washington State chapter of the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE Washington) jointly hosted a meeting on the UW campus to discuss contemporary issues in transportation safety . Chris Madill, the Director of Program and Services at the Washington State Safety Commission spoke on Target Zero, Washington State’s ambitious plan to reduce the number of annual traffic fatalities to zero by 2030 . Matt Neely, WSDOT priority programming and scoping engineer, outlined the advantages of new techniques in analyzing stretches of road where collisions are frequent . 4 Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium

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    PACTRANS SEMINAR SERIES CUTC AWARDS AND PACTRANS RECEPTION PacTrans continued its seminar series to help generate AT THE 93RD TRB ANNUAL MEETING discussions of important ongoing and future research and At the 2014 TRB Annual Meeting, PacTrans actively supported foster an exchange of information between transportation UTC related activities, hosting a Region 10 UTC reception and professionals and researchers. Each seminar talk is broadcast showcasing 85 technical presentations by PacTrans Researchers . over the Internet as a webinar to offer cost-effective participation from remote sites in and beyond the region. The PacTrans reception, hosted in partnership with Alaska University Transportation Center (AUTC), Oregon State On November 13, 2013, Dr. Asad J. University, Washington State University, and TranLIVE, brought Khattak, Beaman Professor of Civil & together professionals, public officials, and students from all over Environmental Engineering and director of the world . University of Washington PhD student Jonathan Corey Safety Programs, Center for Transportation received the Michael Kyte Region 10 Outstanding Student Award . Research, at the University of Tennessee Knoxville, presented on “What Is the PacTrans was also represented at the Council of University Level of Volatility in Instantaneous Transportation Centers (CUTC) banquet, where University Driving Decisions?” His lecture examined a framework of Idaho student Andrew Hooper received the PacTrans SOY for understanding instantaneous decisions and explored (Student of the Year) award for 2013 . volatility with the aim of developing a fundamental understanding of decisions. Dr. Ruth Steiner, professor and director of the Center of Health and the Built Environment in the Department of Urban and Regional Planning and an affiliate faculty in the School of Natural Resources and Environment and the University of Florida Transportation Institute (UFTI) at the University of Florida, presented on “School Siting and Children’s Travel: Siting to Support Active Transportation” on February 5, 2014. Dr. Joe Schofer, Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Associate Dean for Faculty Affairs of the Robert University of Idaho graduate student Andrew Hooper (second from left) received R. McCormick School of Engineering the SOY Award at the CUTC Banquet, surrounded by RITA and CUTC leaders. and Applied Science at Northwestern University, spoke on May 30, 2014 on “Making Transportation Analysis Count: Bridging the Gap between Politics and Planning.” Dr. Schofer gave suggestions of how to persuade politicians and members of the public to provide transportation projects funding, and explained the many factors that go into project funding decisions. Shown from left) Professor Karen Den Braven (UI), Jonathan Corey (UW PhD candidate and winner of the 2013 Michael Kyte Award), Andrew Hooper (UI grad student and 2013 Student of the Year award winner for Region 10), and Dr. Yinhai Wang, PacTrans director. 2013-2014 Annual Report 5

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    Exchange meeting between PacTrans STAR Lab and the China Ministry of Transportation’s Big Data Delegation on Sept. 4, 2014. EXCHANGE VISITS BRING TOP INTERNATIONAL SCHOLARS AND OFFICIALS TO PACTRANS Collaboration and education exchanges bring transportation scholars and officials from countries such as Denmark, China, Luxembourg, and Israel, and the Valle Scholarship and Scandinavian Exchange Program fosters cooperative international education among the University of Washington and Scandinavian institutions . PACTRANS COLLABORATES WITH CUTC 2014 SUMMER MEETING LOCAL PARTNERS PacTrans participated in the CUTC 2014 Summer Meeting PacTrans works closely with transportation agencies in research, held in Lincoln, Nebraska June 2-5 . Over 200 attendees from education and workforce development, and technology transfer . different University Transportation Centers across the country Agency representatives’ input contributes to the strong regional participated . Transportation professionals, administrators and focus and alignment of PacTrans’ research programs with the educators came together to discuss and share state-of-the- goals of local transportation agencies . art ideas and methods to advance research, education and development in the transportation field . Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) officials meet with PacTrans L-R: Denise Dunn, Tamara Noble and David Block. Collaborations on August 6, 2014. 6 Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium

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    PacTrans Welcomes New Faculty The University of Washington and University of Alaska Fairbanks are excited to welcome four new faculty members. They join their respective universities with a strong mix of research, teaching, and professional experience. Dr. Nathan Belz joined the University of Alaska Dr. Amy Kim joins the Civil and Environmental Fairbanks in August 2013 as an assistant Engineering Department at the UW from Texas professor in the Civil and Environmental A&M University, where she earned her PhD. Engineering Department. Dr. Belz has an MS Earlier in her career she was a project engineer degree in civil engineering from the University at Primera Engineers and an architect at DLA of Maine and earned his PhD in civil engineering Architects, Ltd. Amy’s research interests include at the University of Vermont. His dissertation investigating construction management issues focused on using video-based real-world data of traffic operations for transportation projects. Her current research work investigates at roundabouts to identify types of driver behavior that are long-range strategic issues affecting preservation, maintenance, inconsistent with the traffic theories on which existing models and renewal of highway infrastructure. Another research project are based. These observations informed the development of involves developing a comprehensive and scalable scoping a new cellular automata model to assess how incorrect traffic process to assist transportation agencies to improve on time and negotiations affect the overall efficiency and performance on budget delivery of highway projects. of roundabouts. He also brings expertise in transportation For more information about her research, applications of geographic information systems, transit planning contact Dr. Kim, amykim@uw.edu. and travel behavior studies, livability and transportation issues in small urban and rural communities, and analysis of driver behavior using GPS and in-vehicle instrumentation. Dr. Belz looks forward Dr. Jessica Kaminsky joined the Civil and to continuing his work on roundabouts, further focusing on the Environmental Engineering Department at the problems inherent to transportation in rural and cold climates, UW in January 2014. After receiving her BS and developing new partnerships and collaborations in the Pacific in civil engineering from Rice University, she Northwest region. spent six years working in private industry in For more information about his research, Montgomery, Chicago, and Sydney. Her PhD is contact Dr. Belz, npbelz@alaska.edu. from the Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering at the University of Colorado Boulder. While there Jessica won an EPA STAR Graduate Dr. Don MacKenzie joined the Civil and Fellowship, a Mortenson Center of Engineering for Developing Environmental Engineering Department at Communities Fellowship, a departmental fellowship and a dean’s the UW as an assistant professor in 2013. His fellowship. Jessica’s research focuses on the social sustainability research focuses on the interactions of emerging of constructed infrastructure systems in the context of developing transportation technologies and public policies, or otherwise underserved communities. and their effects on energy consumption. He For more information about her research, is working in three related areas: (1) modeling contact Dr. Kaminsky, jkaminsk@uw.edu. the charging decisions of electric vehicle drivers and implications for electric grid loads and generation emissions, (2) assessing prospective energy efficiency and travel demand implications of vehicle automation, and (3) evaluating the effects of services such as car sharing and online shopping on total travel demand. Dr. MacKenzie previously did research and advocacy work on clean vehicles for the Union of Concerned Scientists in Washington, D.C., and worked as a researcher on biofuel technologies at a startup in Vancouver, B.C., Canada. He holds a PhD in engineering systems and a master’s degree in technology and policy, both from MIT. He also holds a bachelor of applied science in chemical and biological engineering (environmental option) from the University of British Columbia. For more information about his research, contact Dr. MacKenzie, dwhm@uw.edu. 2013-2014 Annual Report 7

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    Research Success Stories IMPROVING ARTERIAL OPERATIONS FOR ALL USERS — URBAN STREET PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT FOR THE AUTO, BICYCLE, AND PEDESTRIAN Analyzing transportation system performance to optimize users’ travel experiences occupies a major part of transportation professionals’ time and effort. Historically, performance measurement has been largely an off- line, labor intensive endeavor. This is gradually changing to leverage widespread communication systems and technological resources for sensing, data processing, and systems management. PacTrans researchers from University of Idaho, University of Washington, and Oregon State University collaborated to develop methods and technologies to gather data from multiple sources in order to enable a more complete understanding of arterial traffic safety and systems efficiency. This PacTrans multi-institutional research effort documents The outcome of the research project covered several product development on five fronts for multi-modal transportation areas: 1) an open-source tool to monitor dynamic performance system performance measurement. Researchers developed a measures from high resolution traffic controller data, 2) a practical performance measurement development tool that leverages the and accurate tool for estimating bike volumes, 3) cost-effective advent of high resolution controller data. The research targets pedestrian detection, 4) inexpensive and quickly applied tools the use of high resolution controller data output from simulation to extract probe vehicle data, and 5) a pragmatic approach to to shorten the performance measurement development cycle. accurately estimate signalized intersection turning movements. Researchers developed and tested a GIS tool to process sparse Chapter 2 of the project’s final report proposes a tool that bicycle counts and estimate network wide link bicycle counts, facilitates future performance measurement research related to enabling transportation agencies to predict bike usage throughout traffic signal systems. The tool imports data from a simulation the network. Additionally, researchers developed a portable data source for experimentation in varied ideal settings or from wireless Bluetooth data collection system that is much more field traffic signal systems for more rigorous application testing. cost effective for short-term studies than existing products on Currently, imported traffic controller data are combined to the market. Pedestrian performance measurement is so elusive produce dynamic performance measures, including the Purdue that obtaining counts is challenging. Researchers developed an Coordination Diagram (PCD), Green Time Utilization (GTU), application for an off-the-shelf product to count pedestrians phase termination, and queue length/delay. These are integrated using the Microsoft Kinect video game sensor. Finally, researchers to be visualized with the PCD acting as the background. developed a method to estimate turning movement counts for Additional measures and tasks can be supported by the tool’s most signalized intersections and some unsignalized intersections data import and various database functions. from lane-by-lane counts. This last development leverages common matrix analysis techniques to assess data collection plans for solution feasibility and provide a viable solution. System deployment for intersection performance estimation 8 Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium

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    NW Kings Blvd N University Dutch Bros. Christian Center X Monroe Ave X Rogers Graff DCU 1 DCU 2 DCU 3 150 ft 50 ft Web application screen shot showing origin-destination data entry Test setup for intersection performance data collection test Chapter 3 uses origin-destination centrality to estimate Finally, chapter 6 presents a method that solves for turning directional bicycle volumes. Limited input data, simple site movement volumes using Gauss-Jordan elimination row specific calibration, trivial modeling requirements, and practical operations (e.g., row swapping, multiplying rows by non-zero accuracy make this method very attractive relative to proposed constants, and adding a factor of one row to another row). The alternatives. This research also provides the tools to import and input data are phase status, lane-by-lane detector counts, and process input data, estimate bicycle volumes, and visualize results limited exit detector counts. The method evaluates existing with add-on applications created for industry-standard off-the- intersection detector locations for their combined suitability shelf software. to estimate turning movements and selects detection plans that minimize data requirements. It accommodates varying Chapter 4 proposes an efficient pedestrian detection method lane configurations, varying detector locations, and includes for crowded scenes by combining RGB and depth images from or excludes phase status. Because the method is founded on Microsoft’s® Kinect. While traditional image-based pedestrian direct implementation of basic matrix analysis row operations, detectors provide very rich information, their performance quickly the solution is easy to implement. Three data sets validate the degrades with increased occlusion. The 3D sensing capabilities of method’s accuracy, with and without detection error, showing the Microsoft’s Kinect present a potential cost-effective solution for method can be sufficiently accurate for professional applications occlusion-robust pedestrian detection. The results of the study in planning, design, and operations. demonstrate the feasibility of using the low-cost Kinect device as a detection method for real-world pedestrian detection in Arterial system performance measurement is important for crowded scenes. assessing steps considered or taken to accomplish goals for greater community livability. Several tools and methods were Chapter 5 documents the research and development of an developed to collect data, import data, process data, and to inexpensive portable wireless roadside data collection system estimate performance measures. These tools were tested to using probe vehicles whose movements are monitored using prove their feasibility and each chapter provides an insightful and Bluetooth technology. The system addresses industry needs detailed evaluation of these products. for low-cost portable traffic monitoring and supports travel time, origin-destination, and delay performance measures. The Contact: Dr. Ahmed Abdel-Rahim Email: ahmed@uidaho.edu research also reviewed the potential of Dynamic Short Range Communications (DSRC) to accomplish the same tasks and found that DSRC advantages include low-latency communications, broadcast messages, greater communication range (+200 m), and greater bandwidth. Limited availability and expense of supporting hardware are major disadvantages of the system, which will subside as technology adoption spreads. 2013-2014 Annual Report 9

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    Research Success Stories (cont’d) PACTRANS RESEARCH LEADS TO DIGITAL PLATFORM FOR TRANSPORTATION EDUCATION MATERIALS There is national interest in reforming engineering education to improve global economic competitiveness. Agencies such as the National Science Foundation, the National Academies, and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology have made substantial effort and progress towards improving educational methods in undergraduate engineering programs. An abundance of empirical research from multiple perspectives suggests that students should be engaged in activity during the lecture period; doing something other than listening. Students should be engaged with their peers in challenging conceptual exercises for a portion of each lecture period. Despite broad national interest and extensive empirical evidence, however, most faculty have made little or no changes to the way they design and offer courses. The PacTrans Education Team is engaged in three coupled efforts We have collected approximately 300 example educational to facilitate the improvement of transportation education . The materials from transportation faculty throughout the country first is the iterative development of the PacTrans Education that will be uploaded to the PTERC prior to launch . Users will Resource Center (PTERC), the second is research on how be able to browse and search for these materials in a multitude transportation faculty make decisions on educational resources of ways . they implement in their classrooms, and the third is to collect high quality educational materials that will be placed in the Utilizing all of the information gathered in the usability PTERC . The PTERC will be a web-based platform where faculty tests and our research on faculty decision making, we have can share and search for materials they can utilize in their collaboratively developed a full design specification for the classroom . PTERC . We are currently working on the design of the first widely shared version of the PTERC and it will be ready for use We have conducted multiple rounds of feedback on the usability by the end of the calendar year . of the PTERC and developed an understanding of what size and type of materials faculty are interested in, and how users want to Contact: Dr . Shane Brown Email: shane.brown@oregonstate.edu share, search for, and comment on curricular materials . Research on faculty decision-making utilizes established interview methods from educational psychology . We ask faculty about where they found or received materials that they considered for use in a transportation course they have taught, which portion of these materials they decided to use, and why they did or did not decide to use the materials . Findings indicate that faculty have a set of beliefs that affect the way they teach their courses and that dictate how they make decisions to adopt some materials and not others . EDUCATING TEENAGE DRIVERS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGARDING THE DANGERS OF DISTRACTED DRIVING Driver distraction describes the diversion of attention away from State Univ ., and Ghulam Bham (Co-PI) Univ . of Alaska Anchorage . the driving task and is of particular concern among teenage Additionally, no fewer than five graduate students were funded and drivers who exhibit greater crash risks when compared to drivers mentored throughout the course of the project . in other age groups . The goal of the PacTrans outreach project was to examine driver distraction among teenagers in the Pacific The research team developed and administered an interactive Northwest to identify tasks they consider to be distracting and presentation of distracted driving to high school and college compare that to their self-reported engagement in these same students in the Pacific Northwest . Pre and post knowledge surveys tasks while driving . were collected from approximately 3000 teenage drivers (750 students in each of the four states Oregon, Idaho, Washington, The research team included faculty from all five PacTrans and Alaska) . The interactive presentation and a facilitator’s guide member institutions: David Hurwitz (PI) Oregon State Univ ., will be made available through the PacTrans website for further Ahmed Abdul-Rahim (Co-PI) Univ . of Idaho, Linda Boyle (Co- dissemination across the Pacific Northwest . PI) Univ . of Washington, William Cofer (Co-PI) Washington Contact: Dr . David Hurwitz Email: david.hurwitz@oregonstate.edu 10 Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium

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    UTC Spotlight PACTRANS SPONSORED UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO’S NIATT STUDENT TEAMS: A WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TOOL After the University of Idaho (UI) Vandal Formula Hybrid Racing Team won a number of the 2014 National Formula Hybrid Competition’s top awards, team members were asked to leave resumes with GM representatives and were invited by the Chrysler team for a site visit and job interviews, said the team’s faculty adviser Dan Cordon. Over the past five years, the team has had seven students go on to work in the automobile industry. The University of Idaho’s Clean Snowmobile Team, sponsored by PacTrans, has also seen three members go on to work in the automotive industry and ten work in the powersports industry in the last five years. One of the reasons that the UI’s National Institute for Advanced Transportation Technology (NIATT) team initiatives are such impressive and effective workforce development and career building tools is that these aren’t simply a few weeks spent working on a project for a professor . A spot on the Formula Hybrid Racing Team or the Clean Snowmobile Team means working with students and professors from multiple disciplines for a year or more . Many students become involved as undergraduates and then carry on working with the team as graduates . This kind of sustained, focused involvement means students become familiar not only with the technology they are working with, but also with the tenor of the industry . NIATT student Andrew Hooper, MS in Mechanical Engineering ’13, was with UI’s Clean Snowmobile Team for five years . During an interview following his team’s win in 2013, Hooper, now a project engineer for Polaris, stated that working on the team is a “very big career-opportunity maker for a student .” The success of the UI’s Snowmobile team reflects the transfer of PacTran’s own technology in several ways, primarily through The Clean Snowmobile team also continues to create new the hiring of its own students . Often the projects they work on technology for a cleaner, quieter and more fuel efficient when first hired are highly related to the projects they worked snowmobile, with several patents as a result . This technology on as students with PacTran’s research platforms . Some of the is needed to support the winter economy in rural areas of the ideas that are implemented arise from discussions with the R&D inland Northwest and Alaska, and has shown that it is possible personnel from the major powersports manufacturers . Once a to maintain environmental excellence in pristine areas while proof of concept has been demonstrated on the vehicle, those permitting winter motorized recreation . manufacturers hire UI graduates who work on implementing those lessons learned in the next generation of powersports models currently in the design phase . Working with a NIATT-sponsored team not only provides students with in-depth involvement with the transportation and automotive industry, it also encourages them to persist in that industry . Because of team members’ early and often industry- level instruction in the practical aspects of their field, students feel confident to take on professional projects and enter the job market in their field . Contact: Dr . Dan Cordon Email: dcordon@uidaho.edu 2013-2014 Annual Report 11

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    Research Highlights DATA COLLECTION AND SPATIAL EXTRAPOLATION OF BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN DATA This project, led by Dr. Michael Lowry at the University of Idaho, has developed a method to estimate Average Annual Daily Bicyclists (AADB) throughout a street network by spatially and temporally extrapolating observed two-hour bicycle counts that are collected through citizen-volunteer count programs. The method can be used to compare different bi-cycle improvement scenarios . In addition, a framework has been created to compare improvement scenarios in terms of exposure to dangerous situations . This involves creating “dangerous situation metrics” through a public involvement process . For example, in the case study a metric was devised to study a dangerous situation known as the “right hook” a situation in which a high number of bicyclists are going straight through an intersection and a high volume of vehicles are turning right . The proposed bicycle master plan presented to the case- study community would decrease the right hook exposure metric by 5% . These tools are being tested in Moscow, Idaho, Bellingham and Seattle, Washington . Contact: Dr . Michael Lowry Email: mlowry@uidaho.edu TRADE-OFFS BETWEEN PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS (P3’S) AND DESIGN BID BUILD (DBB) With the adoption of Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Today’s value-for-money, shadow bid, or return on investment Century Act (MAP-21) and an almost ten-fold increase of the equations have not been designed to factor in the consequences Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (TIFIA) of multiple shifts in legal rights and responsibilities commonly lending program, the U .S . Congress signaled that the transport written into P3 agreements . This project uses a transaction cost community should look to the private sector for transportation economic measurement framework to make sense of trade-offs finance . But is this the right direction for our roads? Or, as others between P3’s and the more traditional design bid build (DBB) have suggested, might there be unintended consequences to option . public-private partnerships (P3’s)? The fruit of a joint collaboration between two regional University Transportation Centers, this research will produce a methodology for comparatively evaluating the relative merits and disadvantages of projects procured through P3 and DBB in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Alaska . The study findings are intended to appeal to a broad audience including policymakers, their staff, and the public in order to help assist public discussions regarding transportation project finance . The two-year project targets research to the State of California and the Pacific Northwest States of Region 10, including Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Alaska, making use of results from existing completed cases of side-by-side projects delivered traditionally and delivered through partnership agreements . Contact: Dr . Jan Whittington Email: janwhit@uw.edu photo courtesy of WSDOT 12 Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium

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    SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE BRIDGE COLUMNS MADE WITH HIGH-STRENGTH REINFORCEMENT Although high-strength steel (HSS) reinforcement is of these when commercially available, its use in transportation infrastructure subjected to cyclic systems, specifically bridges, is limited . Current bridge design loading . Figure 1 shows codes in the West and Pacific Northwest (PNW) allow the use of a concrete column HSS reinforcement in bridge decks, girders, and bents but do not reinforced with HSS allow HSS in members designed to develop a plastic hinge (i .e ., and subjected to cyclic bridge columns) . In general, higher steel strengths lead to lower lateral loads—note that ductility values and this causes concern . Some reports have the column is exhibiting found that HSS reinforcement (ASTM A706 Grade 80) exhibits significant drift . Figure 2 1 ductile properties similar to conventional reinforcement, but shows the applied force the American Association of State Highway and Transportation versus drift of a column Officials (AASHTO) has concerns with the ductility in structural made with conventional elements and other design challenges . Ductility concerns relate reinforcement (C1) and to lack of data on steel performance . Design challenges include a column made with lack of data for characterizing the reinforcing steel stress- HSS reinforcement strain models, lack of models for predicting low-cycle fatigue (C2) . Preliminary of the materials, and lack of confined concrete models, all of results indicate that which are important issues in seismic regions in the West and columns containing PNW . Ground motions resulting from seismic events can have HSS reinforcement 2 catastrophic consequences for transportation infrastructure exhibit similar Figure 1: Reinforced concrete column with HSS systems . Of particular concern is the possible effect of future structural capacity, a subjected to lateral loads. seismic ground motions (e .g ., the Cascadia Subduction Zone) . larger drift ratio before Figure 2: Applied force versus drift ratio Subduction zone ground motions (i .e ., long-duration motions) reinforcement fracture, for reinforced concrete columns containing conventional reinforcement (C1) and HSS increase the probability that structures will be subjected to more and overall similar reinforcement (C2). inelastic cycles, which may in turn be subjected to low-cycle performance when fatigue and early failures . compared to columns containing conventional reinforcement . HSS may be an effective alternative to conventional steel The current research is investigating the performance of six (6) reinforcement for design of columns located in seismic regions . reinforced concrete columns made with conventional and HSS reinforcement (3 each) subjected to cyclic loading simulating Contact: Dr . David Trejo Email: David.Trejo@oregonstate.edu seismic events . The researchers are comparing the performance BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN RESEARCH PROJECTS The two projects, “Second Generation Accessible Pedestrian that can be used for non-contact pedestrian detection and Systems” and “A Framework for Improved Safety and tracking . Accessibility through Pedestrian Guidance and Navigation,” build The second project on pedestrian guidance and navigation will upon previous research to improve the pedestrian interface at use the AAPS in conjunction with a Smartphone and Bluetooth intersections . system to aid the visually impaired . The navigation device would The Second Generation Advanced Accessible Pedestrian alert pedestrians when they are about to stray into traffic, let System (AAPS II) was developed to offer additional capability them know how much further they have to reach the opposite and performance of the original AAPS system now being curb, and possibly give them information about the geometry of manufactured and distributed by Campbell Company of Boise, the intersection . The use of Bluetooth instead of GPS would allow ID . The internet interface provides an efficient mechanism the setup to then be used for indoor navigation . to customize the AAPS operations and allows traffic agency Contacts: Dr . Richard Wall, Email: rwall@uidaho.edu; personnel enhanced capability for assessment of APS Dr . Denise Bauer Email: dbauer@uidaho.edu performance . The second generation hardware created a system where each pedestrian button can serve as an information center 2013-2014 Annual Report 13

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    Research Projects The universities in the PacTrans consortium heavily invest in safety and environmental sustainability research to address transportation issues in the region and nationally. Our consortium has several sought-after data sources accumulated over many years of research that accounts for the users, vehicles, system network, roadway, and environment. Across the five universities, PacTrans has many researchers who are experts in all five of the Strategic Goals highlighted by the US DOT (safety, sustainability, state of good repair, livable communities, and economic competitiveness) whose expertise complements the PacTrans objectives of safety and sustainability. The current PacTrans project portfolio is composed PacTrans receives its funding of projects of small, medium, and large scopes. from the USDOT via RITA to The small projects are designed to help foster pilot research on new but promising concepts and ideas. operate as the University The medium and large sized projects are designed to Transportation Center (UTC) address research issues of regional importance and require two or more institutes to work together. for Federal Region 10. Since Research proposals are subject to a peer review UTC funds must be matched process that is overseen by the PacTrans Board of by non-federal sources on Directors. The proposals are evaluated to determine technical merit, alignment with regional and national a 1:1 basis, all PacTrans priorities, capabilities and resources of the research research projects are required team, and project scope. to provide match funds at Upon completion of the research a draft technical report is submitted to PacTrans and is subject to a least equal to the federal peer review prior to publication of the final report. dollars allocated by PacTrans. During its first year of operation, PacTrans funded a total of 22 research projects. All were new research. During its second year of operation, PacTrans funded a total of 32 research projects, of which 4 were continuing research projects started in the first year. 14 Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium

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    2012-2013 RESEARCH PROJECTS Project Title PI Institution Type Characterization Of Frictional Int erference In Closely-Spaced Reinforcements Armin W. Stuedlein OSU SMALL In MSE Walls SSI-Bridge: Soil-Bridge Interaction During Long-Duration Earthquake Motions Ben Mason OSU SMALL PacTrans Education, Outreach and Administration Yr1 Chris Bell OSU Administration Rendering Of Dense, Point Cloud Data In A High Fidelity Driving Simulator David Hurwitz OSU SMALL Educating Teenage Drivers In The Pacific Northwest Regarding The Dangers Of David S. Hurwitz OSU Multi-Outreach Distracted Driving (Phase I) Inspection, Assessment, Monitoring, and Renewal Strategies for Structures on David Trejo OSU Multi Critical Lifeline Corridors – year 1 (2012-13) The Use Of Synthetic Blended Fibers To Reduce Cracking Risk In High Jason Ideker OSU SMALL Performance Concrete Digital Dissemination Platform Of Transportation Engineering Education Shane Brown OSU Multi- Materials Education A Platform for Proactive Risk-Based Slope Asset Management– year 1 (2012-13) Andrew T. Metzger UAF Multi Estimating Future Flood Frequency and Magnitude in Basins Affected by Anna Liljedahl UAF SMALL Glacier Wastage – year 1 (2012-13) Phase II: Correlation Between Experimental And Finite Element Analysis Alaska J. Leroy Hulsey UAF SMALL Bridge 255- Chulitna River Bridge Investigation Of Anchor Nut Loosening In High-Mast Light Poles Using Field Scott Hamel UAF SMALL Monitoring And Finite Element Analysis PacTrans Education, Outreach and Administration William “Billy” UAF Administration Connor UI PacTrans Education, Outreach and Administration Budget (UI Project 2) Ahmed Abdel- UI Administration Rahim Performance Monitoring for Safe and Livable Communities: Fusing Data, to Ahmed Abdel- UI Multi UI LEAD Improve Arterial Operations for All Users – year 1 (2012-13) Rahim -Michael Dixon (UI) Production Of Renewable Diesel Fuel From Biologically Based Feedstocks Jon Van Gerpen UI SMALL Second Generation Accessible Pedestrian Systems Richard Wall UI SMALL Developing A Robust Survey Methodology For Collecting Information On Anne Goodchild UW SMALL The Port Truck Drayage Industry An Innovative Survey Design to Understand Sustainable Travel Behaviors – year Cynthia Chen UW Multi 1 (2012-13) Error Assessment For Emerging Traffic Data Collection Devices Edward McCormack UW SMALL Bicycle Route Choice: Gps Data Collection And Travel Model Development – Qing Shen UW SMALL Year 1 (2012-13) Assessment Of A New Screening Model For Use In Siting Near-Road NO2 Timothy Larson UW SMALL Monitors Laboratory Evaluation Of Recycled Concrete As Aggregate In New Haifang Wen WSU SMALL Concrete Pavements PacTrans Education, Outreach and Administration (Year 1 Project 1) Kenneth Casavant WSU Administration Developing a Performance Measurement Approach to Benefit/Cost Freight Kenneth Casavant WSU Multi Project Prioritization – year 1 (2012-13) Media Filter Drain: Modified Design Evaluation Liv Hasselbach WSU SMALL 2013-2014 Annual Report 15

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    YEAR TWO RESEARCH PROJECTS • Project: Behavior of Drilled Shafts with High-Strength Reinforcement and Casing • PI: Armin W . Stuedlein (OSU) • Co-Investigators: Pedro Arduino (UW) Drilled shafts provide significant geotechnical resistance for support of highway bridges, and are used throughout the States of Oregon and Washington to meet their structural foundation requirements. Due to changes in construction methods and poor near-surface soils, the use of permanent steel casing for drilled shaft installation has increased. However, geotechnical design models for axial and lateral resistance of drilled shafts are largely based on soil-concrete interfaces, not soil-steel interfaces associated with large diameter steel casing. Owing to the increased understanding of our regional seismic hazards, the amount of steel reinforcement used in drilled shaft construction has increased over the past several decades, creating a new construction concern for engineers: the increased steel area results in a reduced clearance between adjacent reinforcement bars in the steel cage, such that concrete has an increased difficulty in penetrating the cage, increasing the likelihood for voids and defects within the shaft, which can lead to poor structural and geotechnical performance. The use of high-strength reinforcement steel can lead to increased clearance within the steel cage, mitigating concreting issues. The use of steel casing and the amount of steel area control the axial and lateral resistance of the shaft. However, depending on the method of construction, the steel casing may result in reduced axial load transfer to the surrounding soil. Thus existing analytical approaches need to be evaluated for modern construction methods, and new approaches developed if necessary to ensure desired performance criteria are met. • Project: Performance-Measure Based Asset Management Tool for Rural Freight Mobility in the Pacific Northwest • PI: Jeremy Sage (WSU) • Co-Investigators: Ahmed Abdel-Rahim (UI), Kenneth Casavant (WSU) Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21) establishes national objectives to increase productivity and economic efficiency of the nation’s freight infrastructure. The recent passage of MAP-21 has placed an emphasis on integrating asset and performance management tools to help transportation agencies better manage the critical transportation infrastructure. Infrastructure performance management expands the more traditional definition of Asset Management to include measurement and reporting of how those assets achieve their targeted operational objectives. While congestion and bottlenecks in urbanized areas readily, and deservedly, catch the attention of policy makers, many miles of multimodal transportation occur prior to freight trips arriving in (or accrue after leaving) urban areas. These miles and the ability to efficiently navigate them directly impact the productivity of the region’s diverse transportation system. This project identifies and seeks to remedy performance measure gaps and freight mobility issues as they relate to identifying the appropriate infrastructure capacity to meet demand for both domestic and international economic competitiveness. 16 Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium

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    • Project: A Platform for Proactive Risk-based Slope Asset Management Phase II • PI: Keith Cunningham (UAF) • Co-Investigators: Michael J. Olsen (OSU), Joseph Wartman (UW) Unstable slopes, including coherent landslides, rock falls, and debris flows, present significant risk to safety and regional commerce. This risk is a long-term concern that highway managers contend with on an on-going basis. The widespread spatial and temporal distribution of these landslides poses a number of challenges when deciding when, where, and how to allocate funds for mitigation efforts to maintain these assets. This challenge is compounded by the high level of effort currently required to survey, inspect and sample slopes for the purpose of condition assessment as part of an asset management program. Slope assessment has traditionally been costly and laborious, limiting it to a few sites. However, routine assessment is altogether necessary due to the potential consequences of a failure. Current best-practices for management do not necessarily facilitate proactive slope management – identifying and remediating hazardous conditions before a failure occurs. Current inventory systems are time consuming to complete (years) and generally only provide basic information after a collapse has occurred and likely caused damage. As such, they do not provide an understanding of how risk varies with time and location. However, a proactive, near-automated approach for the identification of possibly unstable locations prior to catastrophic failure offers the potential to significantly enhance public safety and reduce overall operation and repair costs. Advanced technologies such as Mobile Laser scanning (MLS) show great promise in quickly and frequently assessing large sections of highway. Time-series datasets from the MLS system enable remote assessment of slope stability with a higher level of confidence than current probabilistic studies based on inventories due to a significantly higher spatial and temporal resolution achievable with MLS. The scope of the current PACTRANS-funded project Phase I, entitled “A Platform for Proactive Risk-based Slope Assessment” includes the development of qualitative relative risk model for slope stability assessment using terrain models created from MLS data. In the second phase of the work, we will focus on quantitative time-series analysis using MLS data and integrating this information into the model developed in the first phase of research and into an agency’s transportation asset/ performance management program. • Project: High Performance Bridge Systems for Lifeline Corridors in the Pacific Northwest • PI: Marc Eberhard (UW) • Co-Investigators: Andre Barbosa (OSU), Dawn Lehman (UW), Charles Roeder (UW), John Stanton (UW), David Trejo (OSU) Reinforced concrete bridges in seismic regions have changed little since the mid-1970s, when ductile details were first introduced. Nearly all bents (intermediate supports) are constructed of cast-in-place reinforced concrete and conventional reinforcing steel. Such bridges have served the Pacific Northwest (PNW) well in the past, but to meet current performance expectations, new structural systems are needed to improve: seismic resilience, speed of construction, durability, and life-cycle costs. Improving seismic performance increases the safety of the travelling public, both by reducing the possibility of collapse and also, by allowing emergency vehicles to use the structure immediately following an earthquake. Reducing the onsite construction time further improves safety by reducing the amount of time that workers will be exposed to traffic hazards. It is not enough to develop new systems. Once these new systems have been developed, it will be necessary from bridge engineers to have sufficient information to be able to select the appropriate one for a particular application. 2013-2014 Annual Report 17

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    • Project: Data Collection and Spatial Interpolation of Bicycle and Pedestrian Data • PI: Michael Lowry (UI) • Co-Investigators: Yinhai Wang (UW), Mike Dixon (UI), Ahmed-Abdel Rahim (UI), Mark Hallenbeck (UW) It is very difficult to measure safety without knowing how many people use a facility. For this reason, millions of dollars and decades of research have sought to estimate and forecast travel demand, such as through the ubiquitous 4-step model. Unfortunately, existing methods are lousy for estimating pedestrian and bicycle volumes. In fact, most agencies forego expensive, data- intensive models and instead resort to simply using expert judgment when estimating pedestrian and bicycle volumes. Cities and state DOTs struggle to collect and utilize pedestrian and bicycle data in an effective and meaningful way. This project will create new planning tools to estimate and forecast pedestrian and bicycle volumes. Local agencies and state DOTs can use the tools to help improve safety, prioritize capital improvement projects, and create transportation plans that improve overall quality of life by enhancing these modes. • Project: Educating Teenage Drivers in the Pacific Northwest Regarding the Dangers of Distracted Driving Phase II • PI: David S. Hurwitz (OSU) • Co-Investigators: Linda Boyle (UW), Ahmed Abdel-Rahim (UI), Ghulam Bham (UAF), William Cofer (WSU) Driver distraction can be defined as the diversion of driver attention away from the driving task, and it can result from factors both within and outside of the vehicle (Sheridan, 2004). It can include anything that distracts a driver from the primary task of driving and has been categorized as follows: visual (e.g. reading a map), auditory (e.g., listening to a conversation), biomechanical (e.g., tuning a radio), and cognitive (e.g. ‘being lost in thought,’ and ‘looking but not seeing’) (Ranney et al., 2000). Most distractions are actually a combination of these, thus it may be more useful to categorize distractions according to the task that drivers are engaged in while driving (rather than the combination of the forms of distractions). For example, cell phones are associated with cognitive, auditory, biomechanical, and potentially, visual distractions. Both the attentional demands placed on the driver by a secondary task and the driver’s willingness to engage in that task contributes to the potential for driver distraction and thus increases the likelihood of crashes (Donmez et al., 2006). A distracted driver may also make riskier decisions. As observed by Cooper et al. (2003), distracted drivers made left hand turns with smaller gap acceptance than drivers who were not distracted. As teenage drivers gain moderate levels of experience, they also tend to have greater crash risks related to driver distraction when compared to drivers in other age groups (Lam, 2002). One proposed explanation for this is that younger drivers appear more willing to accept new technologies and devices than other drivers. As younger drivers become confident in their driving abilities, they tend to overestimate their ability to multitask with these devices while driving (Sarkar and Andreas, 2004). Poysti et al. (2005) also found that young drivers, from 18-to 24 years old, were more likely to use their cell phones while driving than middle aged drivers. The goal of the study is to examine driver distraction among teenagers including what tasks they consider to be distracting as compared to their level of engagement in these same distracting tasks. This study differs from other studies in that a follow-up period will be used to identify differences in response based on feedback and education on distraction. 18 Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium

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    • Project: Refinement and Dissemination of a Digital Platform for Sharing Transportation Education Materials • PIs: Kevin Chang (UI) and Ahmed Abdel-Rahim (UI) • Co-Investigators: Shane Brown (OSU), David Hurwitz (OSU), Bill Cofer (WSU), Robert Perkins (UAF), Linda Boyle (UW) National interest abounds in improving engineering education stemming from concerns over the role of the US as a national economic leader (NRC 1999; NRC 1999), low performance on concept inventories (Hestenes, Wells et al. 1992; Olds, Streveler et al. 2004; Gray, Costanzo et al. 2005; Allen 2006), and a sense that we can improve the state-of-the-practice. These concerns have led to the development of an abundance of materials and methods that have been shown to be an effective means of improving student learning and other important educational outcomes. While progress has been made improving courses and curriculum, it is greatly hindered by inefficiencies associated with duplicating development efforts. For example, there are approximately 200 introduction to transportation engineering courses taught annually in the US and little evidence to suggest that teaching materials (other than textbooks) are being shared between the instructors of these courses. The National Science Foundation (NSF) spends millions of dollars annually through the Transforming Undergraduate Education (TUES) (NSF 2012) in the STEM program on the development and testing of teaching methods and materials. Conversations with NSF program managers indicate that they are disappointed with the rate of return on this investment, and would like to see much less development and much more sharing and dissemination of best practices. New NSF programs are emerging specifically on utilizing best practices and understanding the adoption process. • Project: Smartphone-Based System for Automated Detection of Walking • PI: Philip Hurvitz (UW) Walking is the most effective mode of travel to access transit: transit hubs with higher residential and employment densities have higher ridership levels because they serve areas where a large population is within a short walk of transit service. Walking has additional benefits: it is well- known as a low impact mode of travel for short trips to and from, as well as within, commercial areas; and it is the most popular form of physical activity. However, current data on walking are notoriously poor. Travel surveys and diaries underestimate walking activity and lack information on walking paths taken, thereby undermining transportation policies that can encourage sustainable travel. Objective data on how often, how long and where people walk are essential to support environmentally friendly and safe transportation systems. • Project: Field Validation of Recycled Concrete Fines Usage • PI: Donald Janssen (UW) A system for quantifying waste fines in a ready-mix concrete plant’s waste-water recirculation system will be designed, fabricated, and installed at the Stoneway Readymix Concrete Plant (in the Seattle area). Concrete mixtures produced at this plant will then be evaluated to document the effects of the waste fines optimization procedures. 2013-2014 Annual Report 19

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    • Project: Testing of Cavity Attenuation Phase Shift Technology For Siting Near-Road NO2 Monitors • PI: Tim Larson (UW) Recent research has identified the public health importance of air pollution exposures near busy roadways. As a result, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) significantly revised its Nitric oxide (NO2) air quality standard in 2010. The current regulatory focus has shifted from assessment of longer-term (annual average) NO2 concentrations measured at locations away from busy roads to shorter-term (1-hour average) concentrations measured at locations near busy roads. Even though EPA has developed extensive guidelines for siting traditional air quality monitors that are located relatively far from roads, their siting guidance for near-road NO2 monitors is not yet officially established. Therefore this project proposes to test a more direct approach to siting near-road NO2 sampling locations using a state-of-the-art NO2 monitor that is no more expensive than traditional EPA chemiluminesce-base monitors, is much more readily deployed on a mobile platform, and can ultimately be used as the regulatory monitor at the official sampling location. • Project: Identifying and Analyzing the Relative Advantages and Disadvantages of Public-Private Partnerships and Traditional Delivery for Roadway Projects • PI: Jan Whittington (UW) With the recent adoption of Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21), the U.S. Congress sent out a clarion call to the transport community that all roads should lead to private sector financing of our infrastructure. Congress increased the key transport lending tool, the TIFIA program, almost ten-fold to $1 billion in the second year of the authorization bill to spur private participation. The Wall Street Journal further laid out to the financial sector and its readership, “Private investment in America’s transportation systems through public private partnerships (PPPs) has the potential to expand, revitalize and rationalize our infrastructure. With the right policies, that can happen. Motorists, truckers, shippers and private investors all stand to benefit.” This project aims to assess the advantages and disadvantages of Public-Private Partnerships (P3) in comparison to traditional forms of project delivery and financing (DBB). The project targets research to the State of California and the Pacific Northwest States of Region 10, including Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Alaska, making use of results from existing completed cases of side-by-side projects delivered traditionally and delivered through partnership agreements. • Project: Changing Retail Business Models and the Impact on CO2 Emissions from Transport: E-commerce Deliveries in Urban and Rural Areas • PI: Anne Goodchild (UW) E-commerce currently represents approximately 8% of total shopping, up from 6% only 5 years ago with a compound annual growth rate of approximately 9% (Mulpuru et al. 2008, 2013). Online shopping is growing at a faster rate than traditional retailing, and presents a new model for freight transportation. By eliminating stores, e-commerce results in a more streamlined supply chain, often ending in residential rather than commercial locations. In addition, e-commerce often bypasses commercial locations, relying instead on more distribution and warehousing facilities. This project will build on previous work, which examined the carbon dioxide (CO2) impacts of grocery delivery in the city of Seattle and will examine the CO2 and criteria pollutant implications for serving e-commerce customers in rural areas. The earlier work garnered broad attention as it found significant reductions in CO2 emissions were possible when delivery services replaced personal travel, offering a sustainability advantage with online shopping. The largest reductions were observed when delivery services served geographically clustered customers. The work proposed here will look at a variety of previously unexamined customer densities, road connectivity, and depot proximities to better understand the environmental impacts of e-commerce over a broader set of land use patterns, including both rural and urban development. This will allow us to understand how the earlier findings apply more universally. 20 Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium

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    • Project: Encouraging Young Civil Engineers: Support for the UAF College of Engineering and Mines Steel Bridge Team Competition Steel Bridge • PI: Leory Hulsey (UAF) The University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF) has a long and successful history competing in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Steel Bridge Competition. In this competition, university students design and construct a small steel bridge that meets criteria established by the competition committee. Students learn to apply the knowledge learned in the classroom to an actual design project which they then construct. Not only do students learn application of structural design, but they learn constructability issues, scheduling, estimating and costing principles, and personnel management. Many of these students work for the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities (ADOT&PF) after graduation. Dr. Leroy Hulsey is the team faculty adviser. Funds will provide materials for the competition. • Project: Roundabout Design Training for Alaska’s Engineers • PI: Nathan Belz (UAF) Roundabout are an emerging type of intersection design, are a relatively new addition to the transportation system in the United States. As a result, guidelines for roundabout design and construction are very broad and leave much room for subjectivity. This can result in roundabout designs with performance and safety well below the level that was anticipated. Peer review of roundabout designs is one way of controlling this. As the peer review of designs becomes more popular, it is apparent that there is a need to develop a proper procedure for and identification of critical elements that should be checked during this review process. Without such standards, the effectiveness of these reviews may be compromised. Further, the application and design of roundabouts is still evolving. As such, it is critically important that planners and engineers are kept up-to-date with the “state-of-the-art” and “best practices” for roundabout design so that these intersections will positively contribute to the transportation system. • Project: Improving Performance, Knowledge, and Methods to Provide Quality Service and Products • PI: Billy Conner (UAF) The “Strategic Plan” of the Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities (DOT&PF) establishes “Excellence” as one of the department’s core values, and defines it as “Personal and department commitment to continually improve individual, team, and organizational knowledge, performance, and methods to provide quality service and products”. The extent to which this core value is exercised in practice is a function of the interpretation of this definition and inherent commitment, which are reflected in organizational culture. Unfortunately, a unifying organizational “culture of excellence” and the associated prioritized sense of what needs improvement within the DOT&PF has not fully evolved. Consequently, those that seek to promote “excellence” often face multiple questions and points of resistance, such as: (1) Priorities that conflict with improvement opportunities; (2) Low awareness of technologies, solutions, research, and best practices; (3) Poorly planned, prioritized, and targeted deployment efforts; (4) Lack of resources available for deploying improvements – including funding and training; and (5) Policies, procedures, and/or practices that are inconsistent with promoting excellence, deploying innovation, and continuous improvement. 2013-2014 Annual Report 21

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    • Project: Evaluate Presawn Transverse Thermal Cracks for Asphalt Concrete Pavement • PI: Jenny Liu (UAF) Many states are faced with the challenges of aging and degrading roadway pavements, and low temperature cracking is one of the most prevalent pavement distresses found in Alaska and in cold areas of other northern states. This requires significant repair efforts to maintain an acceptable pavement condition. The low temperature cracks are extensive enough that a significant portion of the Department of Transportation (DOT) Maintenance and Operations budget is allocated to sealing and the associated work required to repair low temperature cracking. Until new technology may someday eliminate cracking, significant funds will continue to be spent on crack sealing and repair. Innovative and cost-effective approaches and techniques to preserve and maintain existing highway systems (other than “worst first”) are needed. Presawing of thermal cracks has provided promising results in controlling pavement degradation usually associated with natural thermal cracking, according to the field observation from a few asphalt concrete (AC) pavement projects in Alaska. However, a systematic approach has not been developed to implement optimum application of this technique in AC pavements, especially when the thermal cracking actually involves both the AC layer as well as the underlying aggregate. • Project: The Value of Depressed Medians on Divided Highways in Alaska • PI: Guhlam Bham (UAF) The population of Alaska especially the city of Anchorage is steadily increasing. As a result, traffic volumes are higher and demands to add lanes to existing highways is increasing in order to relieve congestion. In Alaska, an expressway or freeway is a high-speed (≥ 50 mph), multilane, divided highway with partial access control. These divided highways typically utilize wide medians. These medians are considered an option to be replace with narrow medians in order to provide additional through lanes to cater to the needs of higher traffic volume and keep traffic congestion to a minimum. During the Alaska winter where snow accumulates in medians from October to April, drivers can lose control of their vehicles in slippery road conditions; however, these wide medians with heavy snow serve as a refuge to absorb the impact of a crash. The damage to a vehicle and its occupants can be minimal as a result. If the existing wide medians are used to construct additional lanes, these wide medians will no longer be available to act as safety cushions. On the contrary, a narrow median will mainly act as a barrier to separate vehicles traveling in the opposite direction. Without a depressed median (a vee ditch), single vehicle run-off-road crashes could evolve into multi-vehicle crashes among vehicles traveling in the same direction. These depressed wide medians also act as snow storage areas, allowing snow to be plowed on both sides of the road. Eliminating these medians will reduce the available snow storage space and require plowing all of the snow to the right and increase the snow load to one side of the road. A study is proposed that will examine the operational and safety benefits of 1) keep existing wide medians, and 2) replace existing medians with a) concrete barriers, b) high tensioned cable barriers, and c) another feasible alternative. Modern protective devices, such as cable barriers, offer protection with a lower risk of vehicle damage and personal injury than do traditional concrete barriers and guardrails. The study will evaluate the benefits of travel way that is safer to use. Further, the study will examine the benefits of higher traffic volume with minimal congestion to the cost of construction of additional lanes and property damage to vehicles as a result of collision with different types of barriers. 22 Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium

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    • Project: Evaluate H2RI Wicking Fabric for Pavement Applications • PIs: Bill Conner and Xiong Zhang (UAF) H2Ri wicking fabric is a new geotextile manufactured by TenCate Geosynthetics. It contains both a high modulus polypropylene yarn for reinforcement and a nylon wicking yarn which can absorb and transport water for drainage under unsaturated conditions. Therefore, H2Ri is a dual functional geosynthetic product, which can serve as reinforcement and provide drainage. When properly designed, it has the potential to dehydrate the subgrade and base course and consequently improve the performance of pavements. This potential has been qualitatively confirmed by a laboratory research performed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks and a small test section constructed on the Dalton Highway at mile 110, AKA “Beaver Slide” in Alaska. However, there is no method available to quantify and incorporate the benefits of H2Ri into a pavement design. There are several key questions remain unanswered such as: How far does the H2Ri wicking fabric can transport water? How much is the water transport rate? What is the range of the water removal in the vertical direction? This proposed research is trying to answer these questions so that the benefit of the H2Ri wicking fabric can be incorporated in to design. • Project: Assessment of Lube Oil Management and Self-Cleaning Oil Filter Feasibility in WSF(WA State Ferries)Vessels • PI: Liv Haselbach (WSU) Lube oil management aboard vessels is a critical component of maintaining the life of a vessel engine. Lube oil and the associated filters are expensive as is the maintenance and associated downtime. Disposal of filters as a hazardous waste and handling of lube oil presents an environmental risk and additional costs. Preventive and predictive management of lube oil can reduce lube oil maintenance costs and environmental risk, making the operation of Washington State Ferries (WSF) vessels more sustainable and cost effective. To gain these benefits WSF needs to consider both the economic and the environmental impacts of the self-cleaning oil filters alternative. This research proposal is part of a larger, stepwise effort which asks the following questions: (1) Can self-cleaning oil filters be retrofitted on WSF vessels providing the same level or better of contaminant removal as paper filters? (2) Is the use of self-cleaning oil filters a cost effective solution that reduces environmental risks? (3) Will self-cleaning filters save money by extending maintenance change out lube oil periods and reducing environmental disposal costs and risks? (4) Can improved monitoring and analysis of lube oil lengthen the time period between lube oil changes while maintaining the life of the engine? • Project: NDE System for Determining Wood Guardrail Post Integrity • PI: Donald A. Bender (WSU) Wood guardrail posts degrade over time due to decay, insects and weathering, and the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) needs an inspection system to determine the condition of posts along our highways to effectively prioritize future investments in guardrail upgrades. There are approximately 1.5 to 2 million guardrail posts on the state highway system. Post inspection methods at WSDOT have never been uniformly defined, and the inspection opportunities have normally been associated with pavement preservation projects. Combined with a parallel WSDOT study, the goal is to develop a reliable, cost-effective nondestructive evaluation (NDE) procedure for inspecting wood guardrail posts. The proposed stress wave NDE system will address deficiencies in current equipment with regard to ease of use and worker safety; efficient ways to acquire/store/transmit data; along with heuristics to interpret data and guide decision-making on guardrail maintenance and replacement. Specific objectives are to: (1) Work with an industrial partner on a new prototype stress wave instrument with features to consistently initiate stress waves; inspect posts below grade; store stress wave transit times, global positioning system (GPS) coordinates and time; and transmit data to a cloud server. (2) Characterize the prediction accuracy and reliability of the proposed NDE system. (3) Work with WSDOT representatives to integrate NDE data collected in the field into their geographic information system (GIS) system to help guide maintenance decisions with other GIS layers of information. (4) Conduct field trials and time-motion studies to obtain worker feedback with regard to training, ease of use, safety implications and feedback for improving the system. 2013-2014 Annual Report 23

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    • Project: Development of a Durable Asphalt Mix for Eastern Washington and Mountain Passes • PI: Haifang Wen (WSU) The pavements in the State of Washington witnessed great differences in performance, depending on the climatic zones. The climate west of the Cascade (referred to as West) is generally mild with wet winters. The climate in east of the Cascade (referred to as East) is drier with more extreme temperatures which often drop below freezing during winter. Studded tires are widely used in this area during winter time, creating additional damage (rutting and abrasion) to the hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. The climate within Cascade Range (referred to as mountain passes) is mild in summer but much severe in winter with frequent snow and freezing conditions. The average lives of pavements within West (16.7 years) are significantly longer than those in East (10.9 years) or Mountain pass (as low as 5 years). In addition, there seems to have more catastrophic failures of pavements in Mountain Pass, such as SR 12 (Weston et al.). • Project: Enhancing the Resilience of Idaho’s Transportation Network to Natural Hazards and Climate Change • PI: Tim Frazier (UI) The goals of this research are to determine both the process (i .e ., methodology) and the technology (i .e ., models) through which the vulnerability science community may provide value on critical and pervasive hazard risk-related issues to state and regional decision makers in Idaho for the purpose of transportation infrastructure resilience enhancement . To achieve the research goals, this study will conduct a probabilistic risk and vulnerability assessment of the state’s transportation network to current and future hazards with a special focus on increased flooding and landslide hazards associated with climate variability and change . Upon completion of the vulnerability assessment, mitigation and adaptation strategies will be developed in collaboration with the Idaho Department of Transportation (IDOT) and the Idaho Bureau of Homeland Security (IBHS) for the purpose of reducing negative impacts associated with current and future geophysical phenomenon . The research will have three phases: 1) Conduct a hazards and climate change vulnerability assessment to determine current and future threats to the state’s transportation network; 2) Conduct a needs assessment with IDOT and IBHS to determine short and long-term mitigation and adaptation opportunities and constraints; 3) Presentation of results . By the end of the proposal year, the researcher will have developed a methodology and research results that will determine the vulnerability of the state of Idaho’s transportation network to current geophysical hazards and future hazards associated with climate change impacts . Overall, the proposed research is expected to produce the following outcomes: (1) Geographic information system (GIS) modeling to determine the vulnerability of the state’s transportation network geophysical hazards . (2) A framework for determining opportunities and constraints for transportation mitigation strategies . (3) A short and long range plan for the implementation of mitigation and adaptation strategies to enhance the resilience of Idaho’s transportation network . (4) Process evaluation by research stakeholders . • Project: Modeling Passing Behavior on Two-Lane Rural Highways: Evaluating Crash Risk under Different Geometric Condition • PI: Michael Dixon (UI) Passing maneuvers on rural two-lane highways are a complex task with a significant effect on safety, capacity, and service quality. This maneuver, which involves driving in the lane of the opposing traffic, is associated with simultaneously increasing crash risk and increasing the driver’s speed. Understanding drivers’ passing behavior and their decision-making on two-lane rural highways can significantly contribute to accurately predicting risk and service quality. Only limited research has been conducted to capture and document drivers’ perception of when they need to pass and passing decision-making. This is partly because it is difficult to collect detailed 24 Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium

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    data on driver perceptions and passing behavior in the real-world environment. Furthermore, field studies offer little control over the intervening variables, and usually no information on the drivers being observed. Evidence showing the effects of this limited research lies in recent work assessing passing sight distance (PSD) standards for two-lane highways in two preeminent manuals. One is the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Green Book, which states minimum PSD and the other is the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD). Marking of passing and no-passing zones is based on PSD criteria presented in the MUTCD. The National Highway Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 605 presented recommendations regarding current procedures and guidelines used to estimate minimum PSD requirements for highway design and pavement marking. The report concluded that the MUTCD PSD criteria for marking passing and no-passing zones should also be used for PSD design. It also concluded that although the longer AASHTO PSD criteria might provide improved traffic operational efficiency, the AASHTO PSD are so long they are often impractical. As a result of the report recommendations, the PSD values in the 2011 AASHTO green book were modified and brought closer to the MUTCD PSD values. The field data used to validate different PSD models in NCHRP 605 was based on video data collection. Videos were used to study distance traveled by the passing vehicle in the opposing lane, the speed differential between the passed and passing vehicles, and the deceleration rate used by the passing vehicle when the passing maneuver was aborted. No relationship was established between driver perception of quality of service, passing behavior, and the present highway conditions. Finally, the only tool available for estimating two-lane highway performance resides in the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM). This tool is not based on any relationship between observed user perception, documented driver passing behavior, and two lane highway conditions. As a result, the Transportation Research Board’s Committee on Highway Capacity & Quality of Service identified researching two-lane highway traffic operations as a high priority research subject, as did the American AASHTO. • Project: A Framework for Improved Safety and Accessibility through Pedestrian Guidance and Navigation • PI: Denise Bauer (UI) With the changes in America’s demographics comes a need to provide improved accommodation of individuals with reduced capabilities. To date, our research has focused upon assistive pedestrian signal technologies for pedestrians with impaired vision. Such individuals must learn to cross complex intersections safely using a range of sensory inputs, including auditory cues from traffic surge and beaconing systems. Unfortunately, reduced vehicle noise, particularly for hybrid or electric vehicles, combined with increases in background sound levels, reduces the effectiveness of this approach. Furthermore, once the signal changes and the pedestrian starts to cross, there is very little communication with the pedestrian other than the possibility of active beaconing. The traffic controller has no way of knowing how far pedestrians have progressed and whether they are still in the crosswalk. This project is proposing the integration of commercial technologies commonly found in smartphones and other mobile electronics into a framework that will provide for pedestrian tracking and navigation. Such capability would allow the pedestrian signal device to take corrective action, such as providing navigational corrections or extending the walk signal (in extreme circumstances). With a “technology-neutral” framework (using a device other than a smartphone), this pedestrian support can be expanded to other avenues, such as railway crossings, bus terminals, and airports. 2013-2014 Annual Report 25

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    • Project: Geospatial Analysis of Bicycle Network “Level of Stress”, Bicycle Crashes and the Geo- coded Pavement Conditions for Risk Factors Identification • PI: Haizhong Wang (OSU) Safety remains a problem on U.S. roadways, with more than 32,000 fatalities, 2.2 million injuries and 6 million crashes each year. Less than two percent of motor vehicle crashes deaths are bicyclists. The loss of 677 lives in bicycle/motor vehicle crashes in the U.S. in 2011, although lower than the 830 fatalities in 1995, is still on the rise just a few years ago. Cities and counties in the United States have made small progress promoting bicycling by developing painted bike lanes, separate bicycle-only highways, bike share programs and incentives for businesses that encourage employees to bike to work. Recent research proposes evaluating urban bicycle treatments of this kind by how to reduce bicycle crashes and the stress-level for cyclists on road networks (Mekuria, Furth and Nixon 2012). This report proposes a four-step classification system for streets, roads, highways and bike paths based on research into consumer categories of bicycle users. The system ranges from stress “level one” streets where vehicles travel under 30 miles an hour and provide for good vehicle visibility such that small children can safely bike on them, to stress “level four” streets with 40 plus mile per hour vehicle traffic only traversed by professional cyclists. This proposed study merges existing research on spatial pattern of bicycle crashes and pavement conditions with recently proposed criteria for evaluating bicycle network “level of stress” connectivity and how it is connected to the casual patterns of bicycle crashes. This research combines demand based household travel data from the 2011 Oregon Household Activities Survey (OHAS) and Oregon crash database with supply based geographic information system (GIS) analysis of the City of Corvallis, Oregon’s bicycle infrastructure network to evaluate the impact of bicycle infrastructure investment on household behavior, and the statewide crash database. Multiple measures of connectivity to bicycle networks are evaluated, including level of service directly around households, number of destinations for given trip purposes within specified ranges of the households, and the number of bicycle lane miles connected to the household through low-stress networks. The research team will utilize demographic information from the OHAS dataset to minimize issues of self-selection into specific, bicycle friendly units by individuals of certain ages and family structures and GIS-based Oregon statewide crash database. • Project: Assessing the Capacity of the Pacific Northwest as an Intermodal Freight Transportation Hub • PI: Hectro Vergara (OSU) The economic health of the Pacific Northwest greatly depends on domestic and international trade markets and the efficient performance of freight transportation systems and their interconnections across the region. Very important industries in the region such as manufacturing, agriculture, retail and construction are heavily dependent on freight transportation. In the state of Oregon only, $16 million worth of cargo was moved on roads each hour of every day during 2008. Intermodal transportation refers to the use of two or more transportation modes to move goods from origin to destination to take advantage of economies of scale (for example, containers that are moved from a ship to a truck or to a train). Besides the economic benefits of intermodal transportation, overall sustainability is also improved as linkages between different transportation modes allow better utilization of transportation assets and a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions as goods are transported more efficiently. The Pacific Northwest has a geographical advantage as compared to other regions on the West Coast of the United States and Canada as it can easily connect Eastern markets in Asia with consumers in the Midwest region of the United States. However, although some previous studies have analyzed the potential of the intermodal infrastructure and operations in some of the states in the region, it remains unclear how the Pacific Northwest as a whole is currently positioned to serve as a major hub for intermodal freight transportation and what are the major areas for improvement in order to increase the overall economic and environmental sustainability of freight transportation. This will benefit policy makers and major stakeholders throughout the region as they plan future projects needed to expand the infrastructure and technological and operational capacity of the Pacific Northwest as a major intermodal freight transportation hub within the United States. 26 Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium

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    • Project: SSI Bridge 2: Evaluation of Soil Structure Interaction Effects on PNW Bridges • PI: Ben Mason (OSU) • Co Investigator: Andre Barbosa (OSU) The Pacific Northwest (PNW) is prone to large subduction zone earthquakes as well as smaller, shallow, crustal earthquakes. The effects of these types of earthquakes on PNW bridges is not well understood – especially the effects of the large magnitude, long-duration subduction earthquake motions. In this project, we will solve the following problem: How will typical bridges in the PNW respond during impending earthquake events? The term “typical bridges” here is meant to imply the majority of the bridge stock in the PNW that has not been subjected to rigorous seismic analysis and design. Typical bridges are extremely important, because they account for the majority of the PNW’s bridge stock, and they are critical for the lifeline routes after the impending earthquake occurs. In summary, this work will eventually lead to guidance for designing and retrofitting typical bridges in the PNW, and this guidance will be critical for ensuring that our transportation corridors remain functional after the impending event. This, in turn, will improve the safety of the PNW’s typical bridge stock as well as the overall community livability and economic viability of the PNW following the impending earthquake. PacTrans also funded the first year of this work. In this first year, the project has developed a comprehensive soil-bridge model, which was designed to represent a typical PNW bridge. The project performed analysis of the bridge using a suite of 14 earthquake motions. Seven of the motions were recorded during shallow, crustal earthquakes, and the other seven motions were recorded during the recent subduction zone earthquakes in Chile and Japan. The analysis is showing key differences between the soil-bridge response during the subduction zone earthquakes versus the shallow, crustal earthquakes. In particular, the demands on the soil-bridge system are higher during the subduction zone event. We currently have an MS student finishing a thesis on this project and we are planning on writing a journal paper based on these results. • Project: Investigating the Feasibility of Using QR (Quick Response) Codes for Construction Document Control in Highway Construction • PI: Hyun Woo Lee (OSU) The success of construction operations depends on the effective management of a variety of construction documents such as drawings and specifications. Despite this importance, the construction industry still lags behind other industries in its use of information technology (IT) and mobile devices in document controls. Thus, hard copy documentation still prevails as the primary method of document management within the industry. In particular, the unique nature of highway construction adds more challenges to the document control of departments of Transportation (DOTs) due to geographically dispersed operations and prolonged nighttime operations.The challenges make it difficult to carry around hard copies of specifications and drawings, and make it even more difficult to verify whether or not the construction documents in hand are up-to-date. Experience tells that any failure to timely access correct documents during a project can result in delays and incorrect decisions (Finch et al. 1996). Provided that the method of document transfer dictates the ease and effectiveness of sharing information among project members, Bowden et al. (2006) suggested that the use of mobile IT in document management can reduce time and cost of construction, defects, and accidents. In particular, embedding QR codes in drawings can offer an enhanced level of control over information flow and transfer by effectively linking paper documents to electronic documents, and accordingly provide the beneficial characteristics, including: fast and remote access; quick links to related materials; dynamic updating; and easy version verification. Therefore, embedding QR codes in highway construction documents can support DOTs and the industry by maximizing the efficiency of their document control practices, and, as a result, can improve the overall performance of public infrastructure projects. 2013-2014 Annual Report 27

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    • Project: Development of Improved Corrosion Inspection Procedures for Reinforced Concrete Bridges • PI: O. Burkan Isgor (OSU) First-level inspection procedures (e.g. visual inspection, chain drag or hammer sound tests) to detect corrosion-related issues in reinforced concrete bridges work only after significant damage to the structure has already occurred in the form of excessive cracking and/or delamination. Early detection and accurate monitoring of corrosion activity require more detailed inspections, which may include half-cell potential mapping and/or taking cores for laboratory analyses for mechanical properties and chloride profiling. Half-cell potential mapping of reinforced concrete bridges is a standardized method that indicates the probability of corrosion across the inspected areas. Half-cell potential results, however, do not provide any information about the rate of corrosion. It has also been shown that half-cell potential readings can be misleading, particularly in the case of localized corrosion, for which corrosion rates can be significantly high while measured half-cell potentials on concrete surface may indicate low probability of corrosion . As a result, corrosion monitoring that only relies on half-cell potential mapping can lead to misleading interpretations about the corrosion state of reinforced concrete bridges. Without the kinetic data, it is generally difficult to detect issues in early stages and to plan and prioritize mitigation and repair actions accurately. For a more robust assessment, additional data that would reflect the kinetics of the corrosion process are needed to supplement the half-cell potential mapping results. Unfortunately existing corrosion rate measurement techniques for concrete structures are inaccurate, unreliable and slow. Chloride profiling results alone cannot be used to assess corrosion rates within a bridge because they only provide information about when the steel may lose its passivity. • Project: Evaluation of Existing and Alternative Information Signs in Oregon • PI: David Hurwitz (OSU) • Co-Investigator: Michael Olsen (OSU) Roadway signs are a key component to promote safe and efficient transportation systems by providing simple messages to road users. One common sign type, the symbol sign, uses a recognized and widely understood symbol to efficiently convey information rather than words, numbers, or other means of communication. The “Information” sign is often used to indicate locations where motorists can obtain information about local roads, tourist attractions, and community services. The symbol currently specified in the Manual of Urban Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) for the Information sign is “INFO” in white text on a blue background (2009). However, the symbol “i” (lower case letter i) is commonly used in many other instances related to the transportation network (e.g., Google Maps) and is also used widely in Europe and other countries for roadway networks. As a result, concerns have been raised that road users, particularly international visitors, may not readily comprehend the current information sign as indicating a place to get information (Katz et. al. 2008). 28 Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium

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    • Project: Improving Sustainability of Urban Streets via Rain Gardens – How Effective Are These Practices in the Pacific Northwest? • PI: Meghna Babbar-Sebens and Arturo Leon (OSU) Stormwater managers and engineers are required to evaluate the effectiveness of any best management practice (BMP) that is implemented by a city on its roadways. While artificial drainage systems are easier to evaluate, natural drainage systems are more challenging because of the variability in the design of the system itself. Better monitoring and evaluation methods are needed to evaluate the performance of such systems in the Pacific Northwest climate, since they are also sensitive to the runoff flows they receive and to the climate in the region they are installed. The Northwest Environmental Defense Center (NEDC) and the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) are currently expending approximately $2.1 million in funds per year (from FY 2011- FY 2014) for stormwater retrofit programs not associated with highways within the Willamette River watershed. The City of Corvallis is one of the cities that is recipient of this funding and is also working on a city-wide design of a system of raingardens. One of the settlement agreement criteria between NEDC and ODOT include monitoring of BMP effectiveness. Most literature available on rain garden monitoring and assessing effectiveness do not explain how the design parameters of the rain gardens interact with the wet-dry climate found in the Pacific Northwest. Hence, investigations are needed to assess the long term effectiveness of rain gardens for stormwater drainage, assess effect of rainfall intensities and duration on individual rain garden design and on a system of rain gardens, assess effectiveness of these systems when they are placed on primary, secondary, and tertiary roadways, and develop engineering standards for stormwater retrofits that use such systems. Such investigations are also needed to demonstrate the impact and success of capital investment made by these Pacific Northwest agencies for improving stormwater collection systems. 2013-2014 Annual Report 29

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    Education Transportation education and workforce development are high priorities for the PacTrans institutions as key components of the mission and plans for the consortium. Our five universities educate the majority of transportation professionals working in Region 10 and have won awards for innovative and effective engineering education efforts. PacTrans’ activities in education and workforce development emphasize cultivating future leaders and professionals through education on the systems approach to safe and sustainable transportation solutions. PacTrans provides educational and workforce development Annual Transportation Research Board (TRB) Meeting activities in several different areas centered on four themes: The Annual TRB Meeting attracts approximately 11,000 enhancing student learning through an adoptable curriculum, transportation professionals from around the world . The meeting, increasing student experiences with real-world transportation held every January in Washington, D .C ., represents one of the issues, increasing the recruitment of students through most important and widely attended venues for transportation expanded university outreach programs, and improving regional researchers and practitioners to exchange research information collaboration in education and workforce development . and share technology transfer stories . Each year PacTrans provides scholarships, fellowships, The meeting covers all transportation modes, with more than assistantships, and internships to students at the PacTrans 3,000 program presentations and a variety of sessions addressing universities . As part of our mission to bring talented professionals topics of interest to all attendees—policy makers, administrators, into the transportation field, PacTrans provides funding to practitioners, researchers, and representatives of government, students seeking transportation-related degrees . Students industry, and academic institutions . and faculty in the PacTrans universities are directly involved in transportation research and education, and have developed Every year, PacTrans honors the center’s Student of the Year by strong relationships with state transportation departments and sponsoring full travel costs and awarding $1,000 . The Student other regional organizations . of the Year is nominated by transportation faculty for excellence in academic achievement and overall contribution to the Region 10 Student Conference transportation community . The Student of the Year is officially Transportation students in Region 10 gather every year at the recognized by CUTC at the awards banquet held in conjunction Region 10 Student Conference . PacTrans and the UW Student with the TRB meeting . Chapter of the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) jointly PacTrans reimburses a portion of conference travel expenses sponsored the Region 10 Student Conference on October 19, 2013 for students who are the primary presenter/author of a paper at the University of Washington . In existence for over a decade, accepted for presentation at the meeting . At the 93rd Annual this tradition serves as an excellent venue for students to share Meeting (January 12 – 16, 2014), more than 30 research papers research and develop professional connections . were presented by PacTrans graduate students as primary authors . Outreach Activities to New Entrants into Transportation All five consortium members sponsor educational and recruitment activities for high school students, under-represented minority and women students, military veterans, and K-12 student populations to encourage their interest in transportation science and technology . University of Idaho student snowmobile team demonstrates a low-pollution snowmobile. 30 Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium

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    TRANSLINK’S JEFF BUSBY TALKS AT TRANSPORTATION GRADUATE SEMINAR Jeff Busby, Senior Manager, Project Development at TransLink that there will be a 50% increase in the in Vancouver, BC, spoke with University of Washington number of trips taken . TransLink hopes transportation graduate students on May 2, 2014 . He discussed the increase in trips will be entirely on how areas in Metro Vancouver are using transit stations to transit, and are working toward making stimulate better development and the relationship between development in Metro Vancouver as development and transportation infrastructure . Metro Vancouver transit-friendly as possible . is projected to grow by 50% over the next 30 years, meaning PACTRANS OSU RESEARCHERS AWARDED DDETFP FELLOWSHIPS Oregon State University School of Civil and Construction Engineering graduate students Dylan Anderson and Rachel Vogt have been awarded 2014 Dwight David Eisenhower Transportation Fellowships . The highly competitive national awards are given as part of the Dwight David Eisenhower Transportation Fellowship Program (DDETFP), established in 1991 to attract qualified students to the fields of transportation WOMEN’S TRANSPORTATION SEMINAR education and research, and advance transportation workforce (WTS) GALA development . The 2014 Women’s Transportation Seminar (WTS) Gala was Advised by OSU associate professor Katharine Hunter-Zaworski, held on March 27 at the Westin Hotel in Seattle . Mary E . Anderson is developing a manual to improve safety at rail public Anderson, master’s student in Sustainable Transportation at the transportation platforms . The research, conducted under the Transit University of Washington student, received the Helene M . Overly Cooperative Research Program (TCRP), will assist transit agencies Graduate Memorial Scholarship . Amy Riley, also of the University to prevent and minimize public rail transit safety incidents . of Washington, received the Sharon D . Banks Memorial Vogt, who is advised by OSU assistant professor Haizhong Wang, Undergraduate Scholarship . is working with the Oregon Department of Transportation to understand and address questions related to decreasing fuel tax combined with increasing infrastructure costs . As Oregon continues to explore a Road User Charge (RUC), her research will focus on how various rate structures and implementation strategies may impact different socio-economic groups and regions of the state . CONGRATULATIONS TO OUR 2014 GRADUATES OSU PARTICIPATES IN WTS CONFERENCE PacTrans was visible at the WTS Conference this year participating as one of its many sponsors . Two of our Oregon State University graduate students, Allie Peters and Jennifer Warner, represented PacTrans at the Women’s Transportation Seminar (WTS) Annual Conference held in Portland, Oregon May 14-16 . At this international event, Allie and Jennifer represented PacTrans at the information booth, where they explained the goals of the consortium and highlighted research being conducted . They also attended technical sessions and workshops on topics such as “Women in Transportation Construction,” “The Evolution of the Parking Lot,” and “Communicating Technical Topics to Non-Technical Audiences .” L-R: Jonathan Corey, Ph.D., Erika Wygonik, Ph.D., Zun Wang, Ph.D., Menglin Wang, Ph.D. 2013-2014 Annual Report 31

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    Education (cont’d) PACTRANS FABULOUS FOUR: 2014 FELLOWS As part of PacTrans’ mission to bring talented professionals into the transportation field, PacTrans provides funding to students seeking transportation-related degrees each year . Arianna Allahyar Darwin Li As a Seattle native, Arianna Allahyar When Darwin Li first came to attend is excited to be back in the Pacific the University of Washington as an Northwest after graduating June 2013 undergraduate, he knew immediately he with a bachelor’s degree in Urban and would be majoring in civil engineering . He Regional Planning from California State always found it fascinating that billions Polytechnic University, Pomona . In her of people on this earth are able to coexist time as an undergrad, Arianna worked and travel to follow their dreams — safely, with the City of Los Angeles Planning Department for two efficiently and cost-effectively . His curiosity led him to specialize years, and as a multimodal transit intern with the Riverside in transportation engineering . County Transportation Commission . In addition, she has As a senior in the Undergraduate Civil Engineering Program, gained significant experience working for Parsons Brinckerhoff Li interned for the Seattle Department of Transportation, as a transportation planner . Since joining the firm, Allahyar performing a variety of tasks such as ITS, surveying, data has provided technical support for a variety of transit planning management and collision analysis . After working at SDOT for an efforts in the Puget Sound region . additional year after graduation, he decided to pursue a Master’s Allahyar has experience in geographic information systems in Transportation Engineering at the University of Washington . (GIS) analysis, traffic operations analysis, travel demand Li is excited to be moving forward with an internship at the modeling, and policy analysis and is thrilled to be continuing her Kirkland-based consulting firm, Transpo Group . After earning graduate studies in transportation engineering at the University his master’s degree he hopes to put his skills, experience, and of Washington . She strives to continuously evolve as an expert passion to good use in the field of Transportation Engineering . in the transportation realm and connect with professionals across the industry . She looks forward to making a positive Luka Ukrainczyk impact on multi-modal transportation systems throughout her Luka Ukrainczyk has been working career . as an intern at the Toll Division of the Washington DOT, where he performed Joseph Flood studies on income generation by the Joe Flood received bachelor’s degrees SR 520 bridge and a lifespan analysis in mathematics/statistics and brain of GoodToGo tags . He received his and behavioral sciences from Purdue undergraduate degree from the University University in West Lafayette, Indiana of California, Davis . He has worked in the Community in 2013 . He has worked as a summer Development Department at the City of Woodland, and was assistant for the Hendricks County an Undergraduate Research Fellow at the UC Institute of Engineering Office in Danville, Indiana, Transportation Studies . where he performed a county-wide inventory of road signs, photographing signs and entering their condition into a His master’s research focuses on modeling factors that influence database . After completing his MSCE, he plans to work as a demand for the SR 167 HOT lanes . He hopes his work will traffic engineer or transportation planner and pursue his PhD . expand the use of demand pricing and encourage participation in alternative travel modes in the greater Seattle area . He is interested in psychological factors of transportation, including transportation neuroeconomics and social factors influencing driving and travel behavior . Flood remembers that one of his favorite activities as a child was drawing road maps! Needless to say, he is thrilled to study transportation at the University of Washington . He is assisting in the UW PacTrans office where he’s inspired by the people he works with on the cutting edge of transportation research and education, a group he hopes to join in the near future . 32 Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium

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    Outreach PacTrans implements outreach programs each year with the goal of fostering collaboration with the public at both the regional and national levels. Our outreach activities vary a great deal and, whenever possible, involve our students. Whether it is meeting with young visitors from a local elementary school to discuss all that is possible in the field of transportation engineering, or giving presentations on the dangers of distracted driving at local high schools, our outreach activities are designed to engage and inspire. PACTRANS HELPS FUND ASRA STUDENT CHALLENGE Seven Alaska high school students enrolled in The Alaska Summer Research Academy (ASRA) Civil Engineering module, cosponsored by AKDOT&PF Research, Development & T2 and the Alaska University Transportation Center, and rose to the challenge: to design and build a full-scale, multi-use trail bridge able to accommodate the width and load of a utility task vehicle (UTV), commonly referred to as a side-by-side ATV . The ASR module focused on civil and transportation issues showing how engineering principles are used to solve problems . Students applied basic design principles of statics and structural analysis to complete their final bridge project . As part of the challenge, two teams first competed to develop the best design . In phase two, the teams came together to share their work and selected a design for the final collaborative bridge project . Construction was completed after just three days, and the bridge supported the ATV with a weight and payload of 1,400 pounds . Above: Keith Whitaker leads the group in a load testing exercise using a PASCO bridge set with load cells. Below: Students worked hard to meet their assembly deadline PACTRANS JOINS UW PAWS-ON SCIENCE AT THE PACIFIC SCIENCE CENTER PacTrans was among more than 30 University of Washington research groups who participated in the annual Paws-On Science weekend April 4-6, 2014 at the Pacific Science Center in Seattle, WA . The exhibit, titled “Red Light Green Light,” was co-sponsored by PacTrans and the STAR Lab, a University of Washington transportation research lab led by Dr . Yinhai Wang . Several PacTrans STAR Lab researchers volunteered to speak with families and school groups about safe and sustainable transportation research in the region . Interactive pedestrian detection and the Drive Net transportation data analysis, visualization, and mapping platform were among the highlights of the exhibit . This event was a great opportunity to engage the next generation of engineers and scientists in research and development at the UW through hands-on activities and demonstrations . The Paws-On Science weekend was very well attended, with over 11,000 adults and children participating . 2013-2014 Annual Report 33

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    Outreach (cont’d) PACTRANS STAR LAB PARTICIPATES AT UW ENGINEERING DISCOVERY DAYS PacTrans joined the celebration at UW Engineering Discovery structures will withstand earthquakes . This type of testing is Days . Engineers and scientists from across campus displayed crucial to discover how a structure, such as a bridge, would their most engaging research and projects April 25-26, 2014 . perform during a major natural disaster . Nearly 9,000 students, parents, and faculty attended the two-day The STAR Lab also demonstrated video-based pedestrian event, which was free and open to the public . PacTrans STAR Lab detection systems, controllers used for traffic signals . Students and other labs presented their research to people of all ages . had fun while learning about transportation with “Traffic Hero,” Highlights included a PacTrans research project which displayed a game similar to “Guitar Hero .” Players scored points by an earthquake table used by structural engineers to test how successfully using a detection system to locate cars . PEER EXCHANGE VISIT BRINGS TENNESSEE DOT TO THE PACTRANS STAR LAB On July 23, 2014 officials from the Tennessee Department capability to access and analyze datasets from WSDOT, of Transportation (TDOT) visited the Smart Transportation including traffic detector data, incident data, INRIX data, Applications and Research (STAR) Lab to learn about its research and weather data . The network has the potential to answer and technologies regarding transportation data collection, important transportation questions, including how many management, and analytics tools . As part of a larger exchange congestion spots exist in a certain area, when they occur, and event between Washington State Department of Transportation the ability to determine congestion patterns from the data . (WSDOT) and TDOT, Dr . Yinhai Wang, STAR Lab director, The TDOT traveled to a number of Washington agencies, introduced the TDOT visitors to the lab’s facilities and recent programs, facilities and partners in the exchange visit, and the research focuses, including data quality control, mobile device stop at STAR Lab raised a great deal of interest in the lab’s work . based data collection and knowledge discovery, and DRIVE Net . “Very impressive,” said one TDOT representative . “I’m very A test drive through DRIVE Net (Digital Roadway Interactive happy to see your operations . Visualization and Evaluation Network) revealed a robust AutomotiveUI 2014 in Seattle AutomotiveUI, the International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, was held in Seattle from September 17 – September 19, 2014 . As the premier forum for UI research in the automotive domain, AutomotiveUI brings researchers and practitioners interested in both the technical and the human aspects of in-vehicle user interfaces and applications . PacTrans was one of several sponsors supporting the conference . 34 Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium

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    SCANDINAVIAN EXCHANGE AND TRANSPORTATION COLLABORATIONS Norway, due to its location on the northern edge of Europe, has unique transportation challenges . This country, which is roughly the same size and population as Washington State, has rugged terrain and severe winter weather . In spite of these challenges, Norway’s transportation system is notably safe (half as many fatalities per year as in Washington State), environmentally efficient with a high level of non-motorized transportation and transit usage, and still functions effectively during long periods of darkness and heavy snow fall . The UW’s Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE) has increasingly strong ties with Norway’s two main CHAIRMAN OF ISRAEL ASSOCIATION FOR transportation institutions: the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim, which is Norway’s INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS VISITS national engineering and technical university, and the Norwegian PACTRANS AND THE UW STAR LAB Public Roads Administration (NPRA) . This linkage provides an During a recent visit to Seattle, Ur Omry, chair of the Israel opportunity for CEE personnel to learn about the Norwegian’s Association for Intelligent Transport Systems, visited the technology-based approach to improving freight and person UW campus and met with PacTrans director Dr . Yinhai mobility . Conversely, Norway, as a small country, often reaches Wang and assistant director Meghan MacKrell . ITS Israel is outside its border for transportation expertise and both NTNU a nonprofit organization with a goal to improve road safety, and the NPRA actively support connections with Washington road efficiency, and the environment . Established in 2008 by a State . group of volunteers, its members include highway management These connections include 30 years of exchanging organizations, road and traffic engineers, automotive systems transportation graduate students in both directions under companies, municipalities, and academic institutions . ITS the Valle Scandinavian exchange program . This year one UW operates in concert with the Israeli DOT, Israel National Road student (Jerome Drescher) is headed to NTNU and one NTNU Safety Authority, the Standards Institution of Israel, other major student (Kine Nilssen) will be coming to CEE . A former Valley key players, and with ITS stakeholders worldwide . scholar and a recent CEE transportation PhD graduate, Kelly Pitera, is now a professor at NTNU . There also have been a number of exchange visits by staff from CEE, NTNU, and the UW-TONGJI DUAL MASTER DEGREE NPRA . PROGRAM REACHES FINAL STAGES PacTrans researcher and CEE Research Assistant Professor A new UW-Tongji Dual Master Degree (DMD) program in Edward McCormack recently returned after a year as Chief transportation is in the final stage of being realized . Every year, Engineer at the NPRA where he supported a new Traffic this program will enroll five students who have been admitted Engineering Research Centre (TERC) at NTNU . His research to the graduate transportation program at Tongji University, a included work on truck performance measures for Norway’s top-ranked university in civil engineering and transportation in transportation network and testing transportation applications Shanghai, China . of unmanned aircraft . These five students will spend the first year in Tongji, the second This international relationship should continue to grow . year at UW, and the third and final year back in Tongji . At the end Professor McCormack will have an affiliate positon with of the three-year program, after completing all required courses NTNU and will be funded to support the NPRA’s research and research at both institutions, the students will receive two program . One goal of this funding includes setting up a joint graduate degrees: a Master of Engineering from Tongji University ITS laboratory between the UW’s STAR lab and FERC . It is also and a Master of Science in Civil Engineering from UW . Students are anticipated that the funding from Norwegian projects will be responsible for their own costs at the UW and are also eligible for proposed as a match for PacTrans supported research . the Teaching and Research Assistantships offered at UW . This DMD is the result of many discussions and visits held between the two universities and marks a significant milestone toward many fruitful research and education collaborations in the years to come . 2013-2014 Annual Report 35

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    Technology Transfer PacTrans is committed to a program of technology transfer directed toward researchers, transportation professionals, public policy makers, and the general public. As such, technology transfer is integrated in all research projects from beginning to end. At the proposal stage of research, PIs submit an implementation plan describing their intentions for disseminating the results of their research. A representative from transportation agencies or private industry participates in the monitoring panel for each multi-institutional project to ensure the potential practical value and facilitate the possible technology transfer activities of the research products. The PacTrans Region 10 Transportation Conference scheduled on October 17, 2014, offers a great platform for people from the practice side to talk to the researchers for technology transfer opportunities. Additionally, through peer-reviewed journals, conference proceedings, other scientific arenas, and through social media, PacTrans researchers share the results of their PacTrans-funded research projects and seek for partners for technology transfer. PacTrans newsletters and annual reports also serve as vehicles for outreach and technology transfer. People can access publications through the PacTrans website (www.pactrans.org) or via e-mail. To take advantage of receiving publications via e-mail, contact pactrans@uw.edu. PACTRANS STAR LAB other areas . For example, the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) has decided to make the STAR Lab a A strong ITS research program and its corresponding supporting remote training center and provides live traffic data and traffic laboratory are indispensable resources for high-quality training operation software for research and training activities . Leading of ITS professionals and for solving traffic problems in the Puget companies in the ITS field also provided great support to the Sound region . Following Dr . Yinhai Wang’s proposal in June 2003, STAR Lab . The recently received patent (U .S . Patent No . US the Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering in the 8,358,808 B2 Spatiotemporal System for Video-based Vehicle University of Washington College of Engineering and PacTrans’ Detection) significantly improves video-based vehicle counts predecessor, Transportation Northwest (TransNow), USDOT under challenging light and environmental conditions . For further University Center for Federal Region 10, decided to establish a information about the STAR Lab, please contact Dr . Yinhai Wang: laboratory for Smart Transportation Applications and Research TEL: 206-616-2696 (STAR) to enhance the strength of ITS research and education at FAX: 206-543-5965 the University of Washington . Major objectives of the STAR Lab EMAIL: yinhai@uw.edu are: support advanced ITS research, cultivate ITS professionals, explore effective solutions to transportation problems, provide WEBSITE: www.pactrans.org hands-on training instruments and software applications for TWITTER ACCOUNT: @PacTransUTC students in ITS classes, and construct a bridge between the UW and agencies of transportation practice . The STAR Lab is located at More Hall 101 on the UW Seattle NEWSLETTERS campus . Over the past ten years, the STAR Lab has gained broad The PacTrans Newsletter features highlights of research, student support from both transportation agencies and private industry, achievements, events, and news pertaining to the Pacific and developed numerous practical tools and technologies in Northwest Transportation Consortium and its partners . The traffic sensing, sensor data analysis, traffic simulation, and newsletter is published quarterly and is posted to the PacTrans website and distributed to the newsletter list . Photo Credit: Matt Hagen, 2014. University of Washington. All Rights Reserved. 36 Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium

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    Funding and Expenditures FINANCIAL PARTNERSHIPS Funding Sources [$6.9 million USDOT funds + $6.9 million match funds] PacTrans continues to serve as the USDOT Region 10 University Transportation Center with $6 .9 Public Transportation Agencies 5% million funding from the USDOT and an equal amount of match funds from local partners . The Private Agencies 5% $13 .8 million funds have been applied or scheduled to apply to research, education, workforce development, outreach, and technology transfer efforts in Region 10 . Specifically, PacTrans research State DOTs 30% focuses on developing data-driven safe and USDOT Grant 50% sustainable solutions for the diverse transportation needs of the Pacific Northwest . An extensive collaboration network has been University 10% established during the past years . Example partners who collaborated with PacTrans include the following companies, public agencies, and professional societies: 2013-2014 Expenditures • Alaska Department • Puget Sound of Transportation Regional Council Administration 8% and Public Facilities (PSRC) • CH2MHILL • Transpo Group Outreach and • City of Bellevue • University of Alaska, Technology Transfer 14% • City of Lynnwood Fairbanks • City of Portland • University of Idaho • University of Education and Workforce • City of Seattle Washington Development 21% Research 57% • Idaho Transportation Department • Washington State Department of • National Cooperative Transportation Highway Research Program • Washington State Transportation • Oregon Department Improvement Board Cumulative Expenditures 2012-2014 of Transportation • Washington State • Oregon State Outreach and University University Technology Transfer 4% • Washington Traffic • Parsons Brinckerhoff Safety Commission Education and Workforce • Toyota Motors • Western Systems Development 22% • Port of Seattle • Intel • Port of Portland • Microsoft Administration 12% Research 62% Research Administration Education and Workforce Development Outreach and Technology Transfer 2013-2014 Annual Report 37

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    University of Washington 112 More Hall Box 352700 Seattle, WA 98195-2700 www.pactrans.org e: pactrans@uw.edu @PacTransUTC

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