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    The Netherlands Defence Academy presents the Faculty of Military Sciences in perspective Education and Research report 2014

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    Table of contents Preface 5 About the Netherlands Defence Academy and Faculty of Military Sciences 6 Innovative service logistics in the maritime sector 9 Books 12 Column commandant of the Netherlands Defence Academy 15 Knowledge domain clusters 16 First Professor of Cyber Operations 21 Brief news 23 Column chairman of the Foundation for Scientific Education and Research NLDA 27 Positive assessment of European Joint Master’s in Strategic Border Management 28 Opening Academic Year in the spirit of a troubled world 30 Highlights of dissertations 32 Civil-military working relationships 37 List of abbreviations 39 Coverphoto: Officer-cadets look at the possibilities of cyber operations. Article First Professor of Cyber Operations, page 21. Education and Research Report 2014< 3

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    Preface The art of changing the world without disturbing it This title might sound like a contradiction in terms, but I would prefer to call it an oxymoron: an apparent contradiction. The word ‘art’ in the title refers to science in general, not to the specific research discipline – the basic principle is always the same. We try to observe a phenomenon, but at the same time avoid influencing the object(s) we are studying. The observations are subsequently recorded, analyzed and dissected. Based on the analysis it is common practice to theorize on the origin of the observed phenomenon and the parameters influencing it. Using the experience gained and the relevant theory we observe similar yet different phenomena and test our theory against the new observations, hoping the results will stand the test. Then it is time to publish our results in scientific journals, thus informing our peers about our findings and the theory behind them. This enables us to change the world or help others change it, since it is possible to adjust the boundaries of the various processes and thereby influence the outcome of a given similar, but new, situation. Hence, by observing the world without disturbing the situation, we can help change the world. Consequently, the title is only an apparent contradiction. Scientists of the Faculty of Military Sciences of the Netherlands Defence Academy, as well as their colleagues at similar research institutes throughout All the featured scientists have in common the close the world, are very much aware of this difficult balance relation with the military world and the somewhat between observing without influencing the observed ambitious goal of changing the (military) world for system too much, on the one hand, and trying to the better. We hope you will appreciate their scientific obtain enough scientific material to theorize about the efforts and be impressed with their dedication. If you process in a scientifically sound manner, on the other. have any questions relating to their work, please do not Our researchers often partake in exercises or real-live hesitate to contact them and ask for more details. conflict settings that give them the unique opportunity to study situations that rarely occur. These are often Prof Dr Henrik Rudolph operations with many complicating factors carried Dean of the Faculty of Military Sciences out under high-risk conditions, which are not easily reproducible, yet very easily perturbed by external factors. This annual report of the Faculty of Military Sciences contains reviews of a variety of scientific work, representing almost the whole scientific spectrum, with the obvious exception of medical sciences. Education and Research Report 2014< 5

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    About the Netherlands Defence Academy and Faculty of Military Sciences The Netherlands Defence Academy (NLDA) provides Education initial officer training and education and career The FMS offers the following accredited Bachelor courses for officers at intermediate and senior level. programmes at two locations: By offering an integrated programme consisting of - War Studies (WS), at Breda military training, personal development and academic - Military Management Studies (MMS), at Breda education, the NLDA makes an important contribution - Military Systems & Technology (MS&T), at Den to professional leadership. Helder. As of February 2013, the FMS also offers the academic Master’s degree programme in Military Strategic Studies in Breda. Research Academic education is underpinned by independent academic research. Research at the FMS is relevant for the education it provides and for the Defence organisation as a whole, and contributes to improving military operations. Research at the NLDA is mainly focused on military Within the scope of the academic education for disciplines, such as strategy, command and control military personnel, the Faculty of Military Sciences in military operations, leadership and ethics, (FMS) is primarily responsible for the academic degree defence economics, military law and history, military programmes at Bachelor and Master level for aspirant- logistics as well as on technological domains, such officers and officers of the Netherlands Armed Forces. as optimizing operational processes, navigation, In close cooperation with the Royal Naval Institute and maintenance, combat systems, C4I and military the Royal Military Academy, the FMS aims to prepare platforms. Much of this research is conducted in close midshipmen and officer-cadets, respectively, for their collaboration with civil universities. future jobs in the armed services. The organisation chart of the FMS: Faculty Board Foundation for Scientific Education and Research NLDA Staff FMS Research section Education section War Studies: Military Management Studies: Military Technical Sciences: - Military Law - Military Behavioral Sciences & Philosophy - Combat systems - International Security Studies - Management, Organisation & Defence - Military Platform Systems - Military History & Strategy Economics - Navigation Technology - Military Operational Sciences - Logistics and Information 6 > Education and Research Report 2014

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    Research at the Faculty is confined to military-relevant, multi-disciplinary areas, called Strategic Research Orientations (SROs): 1. Dynamics of War and Peacemaking; 2. Managing Military Coalitions; 3. Clustering Unmanned Military Systems; 4. Deployment and Deployability of Military Systems; 5. The Human(e) Factor in Present-day Military Practices; 6. Cyber Operations & Cyber Security. Some facts and figures of 2015 Reference date is January 2015 (from the SWOON Annual Report 2014) Scientific staff FMS War Studies Military Management Military Technical Studies Total Studies Scientific staff 31,9 FTEs 31,8 FTEs 35,3 FTEs 99 FTEs (lecturers and researchers)* * the scientific staff of the FMS provides education (both regarding degree programs as well as in the field of Officer Training or Specialist Training Programs), contributes to advanced instruction and training and performs research and managerial tasks. Number of Bachelor students War Studies Military Management Military Systems & Total Studies Technology and Military Engineering Bachelor students 103 123 141 367 Number of Master students: 88 Number of Bachelor graduates War Studies Military Management Military Systems & Total studies Technology and Military Engineering Bachelor graduates 35 36 16 87 Number of publications by research staff: Dissertations: 5 Books: 3 National and international articles 25 Conference papers 30 Book chapters 23 Reports 6 Number of research staff: Total research capacity in FTEs (including doctoral researchers) 22,7 Doctoral researchers (TNO and FMW) 8 Doctoral researchers from operational commands 5 Education and Research Report 2014< 7

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    Innovative service logistics in the maritime sector The maintenance of capital-intensive installations harsh conditions in which ships and their subsystems like naval vessels offers a complex challenge. Within are operated. Moreover, since these assets are often the maritime and offshore sector a number of typical operated at remote locations around the world, characteristics, e.g. geographical locations, various unplanned maintenance requires significant logistic asset usage patterns and weather conditions, make the efforts and is hence very costly. This reveals that an maintenance even more difficult. At the Faculty of Military important cause of the high costs of service logistics in Sciences Ph.D. student Sub-Lieutenant (N) Bianca Keers the maritime sector is the uncertainty of maintenance MSc works on a project that focuses on improving the requirements. maintenance and service logistics of maritime assets. The MaSeLMa project focuses on developing innovative Together with her mentor, Paul van Fenema, Professor concepts to improve the predictability of maintenance of Military Logistics at the FMS, she explains what the and the requirement for service logistics, on the research implies and how the Royal Dutch Navy can one hand, and developing smart concepts of service benefit from the research outcome. logistics optimization, supply chain coordination and cooperation, on the other. The project’s general objective is to reduce total costs of asset ownership Keers’ research is part and increase opportunities for new business by service of an extensive project innovation. called Integrated The Royal Dutch Navy and the Netherlands Defence Maintenance and Academy participate in the project together with Service Logistics 19 other parties; ship-owners like Fugro, Original Concepts for Equipment Manufacturers like Pon Cat and system Maritime Assets integrators like Thales. (MaSeLMa). In order to understand the role of her research in this NLDA participation project it is necessary The research project is organized in three work to know more about packages. The first work package aims to increase the the motives and predictability of maintenance, decrease unexpected background of the breakdowns and reduce unnecessary maintenance. project as a whole. The second work package focuses on optimal service logistics planning and support and the third on The MaSeLMa developing inter-organizational relationships. project In the maritime The Netherlands Defence Academy takes part in the sector service first and third package. The second work package logistics support is conducted by the universities of Eindhoven and and maintenance of Twente. Prof Dr Ir Tiedo Tinga, Associate Professor systems constitute a of Maintenance lecturing at the FMS and part-time significant portion Professor of Maintenance at the University of Twente, of the exploitation leads the package, which is aimed at increasing the costs. On the one predictability of maintenance. Together with two hand, this is due Ph.D. students, who started their research in 2015, to the complexity he develops predictive models for systems on board and high capital vessels, for example propulsion and radar systems. The value of the assets main aim of this project is to determine when parts or used in this sector complete systems fail, so that spare parts, personnel and, on the other, and facilities can be arranged in time. due to the highly variable and mostly Sub-Lieutenant (N) Bianca Keers MSc Education and Research Report 2014< 9

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    Professor van project. As there are 21 parties involved in this project Fenema is her first challenge was to get a clear picture of their responsible for individual objectives for cooperation, the interrelation the package on between potential partners and to understand the supply chain consequences for individual organizations in terms of coordination. changing their praxis. He supervises Sub-Lieutenant The diversity of organizations, the low relational Keers’ research, but high transactional form of partnerships and which is aimed the traditional culture define the infrastructural at developing characteristics within the maritime industry. “This methods for made it a challenging setting for me to study inter- Prof Dr Paul van Fenema collaboration organizational relationships along with the emerging between asset new focus on management innovation “, reflects Keers. owners, Original Equipment Manufacturers and service Nevertheless, being motivated to develop business suppliers. cooperation, organizations were able to lift the veil momentarily to enable the creation of new scientific In his inaugural speech held in April 2014 on insights into this matter. multistakeholder innovation (available upon request), Professor Paul van Fenema elaborated on ways to make She presented the preliminary findings in three articles the supply of material and service more cost-efficient and discussed the results during a number of scientific during military operations such as the current one in conferences. In addition, with the help of these Mali. His chair revolves around two important issues: conferences and during a series of business sessions what determines the value of military logistics and how organized by Gordian (an organization in service can innovation influence that value in a positive way? logistics and spare parts management), Keers and Van “That is why this work package fits perfectly into my Fenema discussed further research requirements with research focus”, explains Van Fenema. international researchers within the same discipline and with business managers participating in the Achievements in the third work package project. Keers started her research in August 2013. She used the first six months to conduct baseline research and interviews within the organizations involved in the source: World Class Maintenance 10 > Education and Research Report 2014

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    source: Thales Keers: “Based on scientific and business requirements Added value for the Royal Dutch Navy we formulated further research objectives to be studied The MaSeLMa project offers the Royal Dutch Navy successively with the help of MSc-students from Tilburg access to a broad range of newly developed methods University and the Free University of Amsterdam. to increase service logistics efficiency. With these methods, on the one hand, money can be saved Innovation model (due to reduced supply and less unused spare parts) In order to improve the success of collective and, on the other, the availability and operational innovation, the aim of Keers’ study is to design capability of naval vessels can be improved. Besides, and validate a new, comprehensive and relevant the defence organization can learn a lot from other innovation model by which service praxis between professional operators by collaboration in a number organizations participating in the MaSeLMa project of ‘experimental gardens’ in the field of, for example, can be improved. By means of contextual action servicing propulsion and radar systems. research she is systematically studying case problems The added value for the NLDA is that the research and (aided by theoretical considerations) applied results (like models, methods and insights) can be intervention techniques in order to develop the ability used as relevant case studies in both the Bachelor and of organizations to form intensive and long-lasting Master programmes of the Faculty of Military Sciences. relationships. With these case studies lecturers can demonstrate how new maintenance and logistic insights can directly be Keers: “One of the latest aspects I identified to be of utter applied in practice. Van Fenema adds: “We also give importance to the development of any collaborative our students the opportunity to graduate at MaSeLMa initiative, is the intensity and dexterity with which actors organisations. Besides this the project offers more fulfil their roles within the relationship. I consider options; a midshipman studying at the Free University it a privilege to be able to work on developing new of Amsterdam currently graduates at the Defence knowledge and gaining new insights”. Material Organisation on a MaSeLMa topic”. Education and Research Report 2014< 11

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    Books Last year saw a number of FMS publications on various scientific subjects, three of which feature below. Nederland neutraal [The Neutral Netherlands] Authors: Prof Dr Wim Klinkert, Dr Samuël Kruizinga and Dr Paul Moeyes In his new book entitled Nederland neutraal. De Eerste Wereldoorlog 1914-1918 [The Neutral Netherlands. The First World War 1914-1918] Professor Wim Klinkert describes three leading episodes of the turbulent years 1914-1918. The book presents a picture of how the Netherlands remained neutral during the First World War and how politicians, senior military, commercial entrepreneurs and journalists coped with the problems, opportunities and dangers of neutrality. Klinkert portrays three officers, namely General C.J. Snijders, Commander-in-Chief naval and land forces, Prof L.A. van Royen, a ‘gunner’ who played a central role in the organization and modernization of Dutch weapons production, and cavalry Captain Fabius, who laid the foundation of the military intelligence service. Besides these military figures, much is written in great detail about Queen Wilhelmina, who liked to refer to herself as the Soldiers’ Queen. The other protagonists, discussed by Kruizinga and Moeyes, were active in the world of diplomacy and trade & industry. 12 > Education and Research Report 2014

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    Network Topology in Command and Control: Organization, Operation, and Evolution Authors: Dr Ir René Janssen, Dr Herman Monsuur and Prof Dr (retd) Tim Grant The book gives a current overview of new insights into the field of Command and Control (C2) networks, like the systems that are used by the operational commands. That is what Network Topology in Command and Control: Organization, Operation and Evolution, written by two FMS lecturers, working in operational research and a former FMS professor in operational information and communication technology, offers. Over the past decade, the C2 field has undergone a top-down transformation, directive command to Network Centric Operations (NCO); ‘It takes a network to defeat a network’. Peer-to-peer networks (exchange of information between equals), self-synchronisation (adaptive acting) and flexibility play a key role here. This also includes the furtherance of the cooperation in different settings; either joint or combined and civil-military. The secondary C2 processes and C2 systems cannot be studied without using ‘Network Science’, that is the mathematics of networks. The book offers new insights into the field of C2 organisation structures, modeling of C2 structures, networks with their dependencies and evolution and C2 technologies. Scientists from the Netherlands, Australia, Sweden, the UK and the USA contributed to the book. This publication is ideal for reference use by students, academics, and security professionals in the fields of C2 and network science. Optimal Deployment of Military Systems Editors: Prof Dr Ir P.J. Oonincx & Dr A.J. van der Wal At the opening of each academic year, the Faculty of Military Sciences publishes the Annual Review of Military Studies (NL ARMS). In 2014 the 18th edition was issued. In this volume entitled Optimal Deployment of Military Systems. Technologies for military missions in the next decade FMS scientists describe the result of the Faculty’s research into technical means for future missions. State-of- the- art technologies, system integration and planning & life cycle management are the key themes of this book. Technical means that develop rapidly are planning and conflict detection tools for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, a simulation tool for anti-submarine warfare, and the use of chat in command & control for anti-piracy missions. These means will play a pivotal role in modern warfare. From different angles FMS scientists describe the importance of fundamental research into the military application of these means. A short explanation of their Bachelor thesis on future energy supply for naval vessels by two naval officers concludes this volume. In order to receive a copy of the 18th edition of NL ARMS, please send an e-mail to imnm.v.kemenade@mindef.nl Education and Research Report 2014< 13

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    Column commandant of the Netherlands Defence Academy Remember yesterday, dream about tomorrow, live today… 2014 was a busy year for the Faculty of Military Sciences. The impact of the reorganization (and reduction) had to be processed, which had consequences for each individual member of the faculty. Fewer people meant redesigning almost every process internally, which was a huge challenge. In 2014 we started developing a Technical Master’s Course, in close cooperation with the branches of the armed forces, which was hampered by limited personnel resources. This important development has not yet resulted in the actual mission to start such an education. The need for such a Master is widely acknowledged, but the struggle to attain the necessary resources is an indication of the huge challenges currently facing our defence organization. In 2014 the NLDA received the results of a risk analysis on integrity. This important document suggested improvements in the work atmosphere and environment at the Royal Military Academy, the Royal Naval Institute and the Faculty of Military Sciences. Throughout 2014 we put great energy in developing the internal procedures, but more importantly, in harmonizing the implicit curricula of the three institutions. We will continue to do so for at least another two to four years. This effort will result in strengthening the main selling point of the Netherlands Defence Academy: providing an excellent combination of scientific education, military training and character-building. All contributors have the same focus and provide opportunities for lifelong learning, just in time, just enough, and just for you…. Today’s world is dynamic, in which developments Major General (A) Theo Vleugels, constantly accelerate and become more and more Commandant of the Netherlands Defence Academy complex. The responsibilities put on the shoulders of our young, and sometimes not so young, officers increase by the day. The biggest challenge of the Netherlands Defence Academy is to respond adequately to the dynamics of the military profession, and thereby preparing our students for the future. Hence the importance of retrospection, and the continuous search for improvements in education, training and character- building. Education and Research Report 2014< 15

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    Knowledge domain clusters From January 2014 on the reorganised FMS has three domain clusters which are responsible for the academic education and research activities: War Studies, Military Management Studies and Military Technical Sciences. Within these clusters the Faculty focuses on a limited set of military relevant, multi-disciplinary research areas, called Strategic Research Orientations (SRO’s). These SRO’s involve multiple groups and, in some cases, stretch across knowledge clusters. The chairmen of the domain clusters elucidate the important developments within their group and their added value for the defence organisation. 16 > Education and Research Report 2014

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    Prof Dr Ir Patrick Oonincx, chairman of the Military Ph.D. theses Technical Sciences (MTS) department Some of the research topics have also been addressed in Ph.D. E-Mail: PJ.Oonincx@mindef.nl theses, defended by the department’s graduate students in 2014. In the field of maintenance research one thesis studied The development predictive maintenance for abrasive wear of military platforms and application of operating in extreme conditions. Amongst others a case study modern technology on a Combat Vehicle (CV90) was analysed. Another thesis plays a pivotal focused on monitoring corrosion processes based on identifying role in modern electrochemical. The latter project has also been presented during warfare. Therefore Innovation in Defence. In the field of navigation technology, a it is evident, that thesis on terrain referenced navigation was defended successfully. projects on large This technique can be used as a backup for GPS or by submarines material renewal and during covert operations. acquisition attract a lot of attention in Research projects both the military In view of the emerging technologies the department also and the political welcomed new projects in strong cooperation with the Ministry scene. Introducing of Defence, the DMO and civil universities. A majority of projects new technologies were initiated with University of Twente on maintenance issues, and novel military where Life Cycle Management (LCM) becomes more and more a platforms leads topic of interest. Two large projects in this area are Tools4LCM, to fundamentally considering quantitative tools for life cycle management, and re-thinking on their usage and of course on the budget involved. MaSeLMA, which is a project funded by DinaLog on the integrated When it comes to the acquisition of novel technologies, we optimization of maintenance and service logistics for maritime therefore expect exciting years ahead. The new Joint Support Ship assets. In the field of command and control (C2) and sensor Karel Doorman recently entered service, the F-16 fighter will be management, cooperation with DMO led to the initiation of replaced with the new Joint Strike Fighter F-35, the MQ-9 Reaper is projects on platform and system integration, which will also be acquired as Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) Unmanned implemented with the renewal of the multipurpose frigates. : Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and in the next decade the renewal of the Together with TNO new projects on game theory, underwater Navy’s mine-hunters and multipurpose frigates, as well as the navigation and communication were started. possible update of the Dutch submarine fleet. Highlights of publications: All of these projects will yield interesting research questions with 1. Homborg, A.M., Electrochemical Noise: A Clear Corrosion Signature, respect to both technological developments and operational use, Ph.D. thesis, Delft University of Technology. which are the two main topics of interest of the Department of 2. Oonincx, P.J. & Wal, A.J. van der: Optimal Deployment of Military Military Technical Sciences. In view of these developments the Systems. Technologies for military missions in the next decade, the department presented in 2014 the Netherlands Annual Review Annual Review of Military Studies (NL ARMS), Asser Press. of Military Studies on its research themes, discussing views on 3. Grant, T.J., Janssen, R.H.P. & Monsuur, H. (eds.): Network emerging new technologies and new operational challenges, topology and military C2 systems: Design, operation and evolution, IGI created by these technologies. Global Publishers. 4. Theunissen, E., ‘So you think you are safe’ in Coordinates, Vol. X, Bachelor’s programme Issue 9, 10-16. In her accredited Bachelor’s programme the MTS department 5. Vermeulen, A.F. & Savelsberg, R.: ‘Interception of an welcomed various Bachelor theses that were conducted in strong aerodynamically stable weaving re-entry vehicle’ in International cooperation with MoD departments like the Defence Material Journal of Intelligent Defence Support Systems 5 (2), 127-145. Organisation (DMO). Some of them also won awards for best thesis in a certain field, like the Van Hengel-Spengler award for best thesis in the maritime field and the Rene Olthuis award in the field of Computer Science. Also the Bachelor programme introduced additional courses to host a new group of students from the Dutch army, namely the technical logistics department. Education and Research Report 2014< 17

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    Prof Dr Myriame Bollen, chairwoman of the Military leaders fulfill their roles. Basically, we are concerned with Management Studies (MMS) department studying how to best equip leaders to perform assignments as E-mail: MTIB.Bollen.01@mindef.nl effectively and accountably as possible to prevent irresponsible behavior and its detrimental effects at all levels. The department of MMS, on behalf of 2. In Organising for Military Deployment (OMD), both from the MoD and the a generic- and military management perspective, we study Dutch armed forces, structures, processes, systems and resources enabling military delivers an accredited deployment in peace as well as operational situations. We FMS scientific presume both types of situations to interact and to be conditional degree programme to one another. Besides, frequent deployments on operations by (a at Bachelor’s level. part of ) the military increase the need for continuous interaction, Together with the change and innovation. In OMD we focus on organizational department of War questions derived from the armed forces’ unique combination of Studies, MMS takes characteristics, i.e. a politically driven organization, tasked with part in the FMS controlling- and exerting violence within structures, enabling high Master’s degree levels of mobility, flexibility and project-based working. programme in Military Strategic 3. Deployability, Sustainability and Performance (DSP) focuses Studies (MSS). on the creation of added military value by applying insights In a European from specific logistical and economic processes, systems and consortium initiated resources to military practice, albeit on operations out of area or by the EU agency Frontex and in cooperation with the Royal in the Netherlands. To this end, we base DSP in domains, such as Marechaussee, MMS has developed a scientific Master’s degree management, IT and (defence) economics that are being applied programme in Strategic Border Management to be accredited to concepts relevant for the MoD and The Netherlands armed shortly. forces. A Ph.D.-study on the MoD’s Enterprise Resource Planning implementation will be completed in the beginning of 2015. A Besides the afore mentioned degree programmes, MMS staff Ph.D.-study on networked cooperation for national operations provide courses, workshops and lectures in both degree and is being started. Other research projects deal with organizational non-degree programmes regarding initial and advanced officers adaptation at the Defense Materiel Organization, maritime education, within and outside NLDA. Moreover, as applies to all service logistics supply chains and organizational innovations FMS departments, MMS conducts research underpinning both such as logistical-operational analytics. the FMS degree programmes as well as the knowledge base of the MoD and the armed forces. In 2014, one Ph.D. research project, Highlights of publications: supervised by MSS staff, has been finalized. Last, at the request 1. Kleinreesink, L.H.E. : On Military Memoirs. Soldier-authors, publishers, of the MoD and/or connected ministries MMS offers consultancy plots and motives, NLDA Breda, 412. and advice based on its fields of expertise. 2. Soeters, J., Shields, P.M. & Rietjens, S. (eds.): The Routledge Handbook of Research Methods in Military Studies, Abingdon/New York: Major themes Routledge, 336. At its core, the department of MMS, both in education and 3. Beeres, R., Fenema, van, P.C., Bollen, M.T.I.B, & Dado, E.: ‘The research is concerned with three major themes: Strategic Value of Life-Cycle Costing’ in Optimal Deployment of Military Systems. Technologies for military missions in the next decade, the 1. Psychosocial dynamics of expeditionary operations focus on Annual Review of Military Studies (NL ARMS), NLDA Breda, 259-290. 1) the triangle constituted by the individual, group and task in 4. Broesder, W.A., Op den Buijs, T.P., Vogelaar A.L.W. & Euwema, 2) the system (defence organization) in 3) changing contexts M.C.: ‘Can soldiers combine swords and ploughshares? The (before, during and after operations as well as in differing construction of the Warrior - Peacekeeper Role Identity Survey cultural settings). We ask ourselves: “What happens to the people (WPRIS)’ in Armed Forces and Society, 40 (3). in the triangle, during specific –unfavorable situations- before, 5. Moorkamp, M., Kramer, E.H., Gulijk, C. van & Abe, B.: ‘Safety during and after operations”? We also study the effects of being management theory and the expeditionary organization: A critical confronted with violence, both at an individual and at group theoretical reflection’ in Safety Science, 69 (November) 71-81. level. We ask ourselves in what way such confrontations impact on the organization as a whole and how, in such dire situations, 18 > Education and Research Report 2014

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    Commodore (AF) Prof Dr Frans Osinga, chairman Apart from a steady stream of national and international of the War Studies department (WS) publications, guest lectures and key note presentations E-mail: FPB.Osinga@mindef.nl in the Netherlands and abroad, War Studies department has been engaged in official policy development on The War topics such as defence policy, drone warfare and cyber Studies operations. In addition several members have been Department invited to share their perspective on such topics with continued its the Parliamentary Committee on Defence Policy. research on Finally, faculty members have been active in doctrine two broad development supporting both national and NATO themes: doctrine fora and warfare centers. Another highlight Dynamics was the successful international congress ‘War in the of War and History of Ideas’, which took place on October 14, at the Peacemaking Castle of Breda in cooperation with the British Society for (DWPM), and the History of Philosophy and the Erasmus Universiteit Cyberwarfare. Rotterdam. The SRO ‘Dynamics Highlights of publications: of War and 1. Graaff, B. de: ‘“There’s a good reason they are called Peace Making’ al-Qaeda in Iraq. They are al-Qaeda … in … Iraq.” The attempts impossibility of a global counter-terrorism strategy, to provide or the end of the nation state’ in Jarvis, L. & Lister, M. insight in the dynamics of interventions. The aim is (eds), Critical Perspectives on Counter-Terrorism, London/ to increase our understanding of the contemporary New York, 11-40. international security and military operational 2. Ducheine, P. & Haaster, J. van: ‘Cyber Operations environment. To that end it focuses on contemporary & Military Power’, in: Brangetti, P., Maybaum, problems encountered by western governments and M.,Stinissen, J. (eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International their armed forces in solving security issues. It focuses Conference on Cyber Conflict, Tallinn: CCDCOE, 303-328. on five topics: (1) Stabilization and Reconstruction; 3. Lindelauf, R.H.A.: ‘Power Grid Defense Against (2) Engaging Violent Non-State Actors; (3) Leadership Malicious Cascading Failure’, (with Paulo Shakarian, Targeting and Robotization; (4) Virtual War and Strategic Hansheng Lei), 13th International Conference of Autonomous Communication; (5) Adaptation and Transformation. Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS-14). In addition to this SRO, the department also conducts 4. Bartels, R.: ‘From Jus In Bello to Jus Post Bellum: research on cyber warfare. That SRO has a particular When do Non-International Armed Conflicts End?’ in focus on the strategic, legal and policy aspects of cyber Carsten Stahn et al., Jus Post Bellum: Mapping the Normative operations. Foundations (Oxford University Press), 297-314. 5. Gill, T.D.: ‘Some Thoughts on the Relationship between Bachelor and Master programmes International Humanitarian Law and International Both research programmes directly support Bachelor Human Rights Law: A Plea for Mutual Respect and a and Master level programmes run by the department. Common Sense Approach’ in Haek, Y, McGonigle Leyh, Those programmes were enriched by two new Master B. et al. (eds.) The Realisation of Human Rights: When Theory courses, one pertaining to the narratives various political Meets Practice, Intersentia Publishers, Cambridge, 335- and religious schools of thought employ to justify 350. the use of force, and one on the dynamics of military innovation. Both were informed by ongoing research within the SRO. In the Bachelor program the courses on contemporary military operations were strengthened in coherence by re-clustering lectures into four thematic courses, each dealing with a specific strategic context: interstate warfare, irregular warfare, stabilization and reconstruction, and finally, national operations. 20 > Education and Research Report 2014

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    First Professor of Cyber Operations In future warfare the armed forces will operate both in Cyber warfare the physical and non-physical, or digital, battle space. Warfare is complicated as it is; cyber warfare is worse, Brigadier-General (A) Paul Ducheine PhD LL.M. MSc will more different, and therefore even more complex. prepare the Armed Forces for this, as the Netherlands’ Sitting behind one’s computer one also needs to have first professor in cyber operations. In November 2014 accurate situational awareness in order to be able to Ducheine already held a named professorship of Military exactly assess what opponents and other actors are Law of Cyber Warfare at the Faculty of Law in the University up to, and be thoroughly documented before giving of Amsterdam (UvA). Besides this civil academic chair he the order to intervene with cyber power, because the will also hold its military counterpart of cyber operations consequences can be huge. at the FMS from February 2015 on. “Some people think Ducheine thinks it is a fascinating field of expertise, that we can execute cyber operations indiscriminately, but which deals with facts, their legal implications, legal verification of these operations is indispensable”, political decision-making, and the subsequent actions according to Ducheine. public services such as the Police and Armed Forces may take. Ducheine: “I want to get that correlation Cyberspace, freely across to the student-officers we train”. translated as the virtual world of information Interaction between the chairs and communication, is Ducheine’s multidisciplinary chair at the FMS a potential battlefield comprises the legal, technological and military and, after water, land, aspects of military cyber operations, as well as the air and space, the fifth governance of cyber security at national level. Focusing dimension of military his education and research at UvA mainly on the legal conduct. Ducheine: aspects, Professor Ducheine holds a chair that offers “All in all cyberspace other opportunities in the sense that it can bestow enables digital access to doctorates. Researchers at the FMS, supervised by information, which offers Ducheine, can obtain their doctorate at the UvA and huge opportunities to may later on use their acquired knowledge while manoeuvre”. The weather, working within the Armed Forces. “You will have access terrain conditions and to research experience, knowledge and a large network. the presence of enemy After all you do not carry out research in isolation”, forces can, for example, adds Ducheine. He also feels the advantages of the negate the deployment mix of military and civil students himself. Ducheine: of ground troops, “Sometimes they ask questions I never thought of”. artillery and air assets. But it is not necessary to attack military forces; in order to reach one’s goal sources of information can also be disturbed and information can be made inaccessible or distorted. Cyber Command Professor Ducheine, a former combat engineer, has taught officer-cadets and midshipmen at the FMS on the subject of cyber warfare since 2012 as an Associate Professor of Cyber Operations and Cyber Security. Furthermore, he has studied the military-legal aspects of cyber operations and cyber security, acting in close cooperation with the latest addition to the Ministry of Defence; the Defensie Cyber Commando [Defence Cyber Command (DCC)] consisting of a staff of about 50 people. Education and Research Report 2014< 21

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    Background information Positions at UvA After completing officer-training at the Royal From 2003 to 2007 he held an associate chair in Netherlands Military Academy Ducheine joined the Military Law as a researcher, taking his Ph.D. entitled Engineer Corps as a junior officer. He went on to study ‘Armed Forces, Use of Force & Counter-Terrorism’ at Public Administration at Amsterdam Free University UvA in March 2008. Ducheine has been a lecturer in and read law at Utrecht University. He has worked Armed Forces and Constitutional Law at the UvA since as a legal advisor in the Netherlands, Germany and 2004, and is also a guest lecturer on International Bosnia-Herzegovina. Humanitarian Law. Furthermore, he is a senior researcher in the Research Forum on Law of Armed Research Conflict and Peace Operations at the UvA’s Amsterdam As a military legal advisor, Paul Ducheine’s research Centre of International Law. He has published on involves military law aspects of cyber operations and topics including military law, laws of war, ius ad cyber security, his main focus being on cyber warfare bellum, use of force, drones and targeting. and, more specifically, on the legal basis for military cyber operations (the ius ad bellum – ‘right to go to Ancillary positions war’) and legal regimes during such operations (the Ducheine holds a number of ancillary positions, ius in bello – ‘conduct in war’). Ducheine also studies including that of member of expertise groups of the the theories that have developed around the concepts International Law Association and Cyber Conference of (ICT) protection, law enforcement and intelligence Programming Committee member at NATO’s in connection with cyber security, focusing on the Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. He is legitimacy of military and other governmental cyber co-editor of the military quarterly Militaire Spectator, activities. board member of the Military Law Association of the Netherlands, and a member of the advisory editorial board of the Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law. 22 > Education and Research Report 2014

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    Brief news Civil Accreditation University Teaching Qualification programme A commission of external experts, of the association of cooperative Dutch universities (VSNU), has authorized the Netherlands Defence College and Faculty of Military Sciences of the Netherlands Defence Academy the right to issue the Basis Kwalificatie Onderwijs (BKO) [University Teaching Qualification] to its academic staff. Prior to the accreditation the NLDA underwent a process of investigation of its professional programme and an assessment procedure. The BKO is a hallmark of the didactic qualities of academic staff. The Dutch universities together acknowledge the qualifications awarded to the members of their teaching personnel. This means that BKO-qualified lecturers are recognized by all participating institutions for scientific education, such as the Netherlands Defence Academy. The BKO course consists of a professionalization phase and an assessment phase. During the professionalization teachers attend a basic course in didactics and several supplementary modules. In the assessment phase the developments of the BKO participants are assessed on the basis of the contents of their portfolios. Education and Research Report 2014< 23

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    International law in peace operations purpose of the manual would be in relation to other literature and policy documents on the topic. In In 2013 The International Society for Military Law addition, they were also involved in selecting the and the Law of War initiated a high profile project members of the expert group contributing to the aimed at producing a Manual of International Law Manual. All three advisors are contributors of one or in Peace Operations. The Manual, the first of its more chapters to the manual and they will serve as kind and due to be published in 2016, is intended editors in the drafting and the final phase. to provide an authoritative exposé and critical assessment of the law that applies to the planning Additional expert group and conduct of peace operations. FMS Professor In addition to the group of experts, the project is Terry Gill is one of the senior academic advisors enriched by the participation of observers from the that lead this project. UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations, The European Union, the African Union, the International Committee of the Red Cross and NATO. Their role is to comment on the drafts from the perspectives of their respective organizations and provide advice. They do not directly participate in drafting material, but will offer comments during the working meetings. Relation with FMS research programme The project fits well into the FMS research programme ’Dynamics of War and Peacemaking’ and is also part of the Research This Peace Operations Manual project is intended Programme ‘The Role of Law in Armed Conflict for both academic reflection and practitioners. It and Peace Operations’ of the Amsterdam Centre for will consist of black letter rules (the well-established International Law (University of Amsterdam) with technical legal rules that are no longer subject to which the NLDA and FMS have a close relationship reasonable dispute) and accompanying commentary, laid down in a cooperation agreement. It will serve as offering a detailed guide for relevant areas of a research tool for Master and post-graduate students international law. at both institutions, in particular in the ‘International Law of Military Operations’ course in the context of The project is inspired by the 1994 San Remo Manual the Master in Military Strategic Studies. It is hoped on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflict at it will also prove a useful guide for policy makers at Sea, the 2006 San Remo Manual on the Law of Non- the Ministry of Defence in planning and conducting International Armed Conflict, and the 2010 HPCR peace operations, such as the current mission of the Manual on International Law Applicable to Air and Netherlands Armed Forces in Mali. Missile Warfare. Academic leaders Besides Gill, the overall academic leadership of the project is entrusted to two other senior academic advisors; Dr Dieter Fleck and Dr William H. Boothby. At the outset they were closely involved in determining the scope of the project, the intended audience and level of abstraction and what the 24 > Education and Research Report 2014

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    Study of the atmospheric influence on radar propagation The Royal Netherlands Navy is very interested in the extent to which weather conditions influence the propagation of radar waves, because these weather conditions affect the ranges at which crews of naval vessels can detect targets at sea, while simultaneously avoiding detection by the enemy. To get a good insight into the effects of weather conditions on the propagation of radar waves, Royal Netherlands Navy Captain (E) Dr Fok Bolderheij MSc, FMS associate professor of Navigation, in cooperation with American scientists and Dr Vincent van Leijen of DMO Joint IT Command, performed radar experiments off the coast of Den Helder. The radar was used to track vessels at sea while, at the same time, weather balloons were This allows the calculation of the course of the refractive launched to measure atmospheric parameters. These index as a function of altitude and, subsequently, the experiments showed that the path followed by the radar derivation of the curve of the path made by the EM wave. waves was, to a larger extent than expected, influenced by weather conditions. The change of the refractive index is, however, also position dependant. If the geography (e.g. land or water) or the meteorological conditions (a cold front) change, the weather balloon will measure different refractive profiles at different positions. A sound prediction of the propagation of EM waves, therefore, requires the launch of weather balloons at multiple locations. Also, the propagation prediction model has to be able to cope with a position dependant refractive profile. The AREPS software package has this capability. Weather prediction model Launching weather balloons is expensive and cumbersome. Good launch positions may be unavailable and therefore the simultaneous launch of a number of balloons is difficult. The Dutch and American research This influence is brought about by changes in the air group examined whether the data from the weather pressure, humidity and/or temperature, that consequently prediction model HARMONIE of the Royal Netherlands result in a changing refractive index (light breaking index), Meteorological Institute is suitable to feed AREPS with a which causes the electromagnetic (EM) waves to deviate position-dependant refractive profile. The outcome was from a straight path and follow a curved path instead. positive and in collaboration with SPAWAR measurements were then carried out at the Dutch coast to validate the Software package results of the model. There are various software packages available to predict this influence, one of the most advanced being the This research also involved close collaboration with the Advanced Refractive Effects Prediction System (AREPS) of Joint Information Technology Command, to which Dr the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR), Vincent van Leijen is attached, and the Defence Joint Meteo a major department of navy acquisition commands. To Group, supported by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological monitor changes in the refractive index weather balloons Institute. Part of this research is carried out by Sub- are used, equipped with a probe that measures the Lieutenant (E) Joris Derksen, an NLDA Master student at TU environmental variables including their GPS position and Delft. the precise moment that these measurements were taken. Education and Research Report 2014< 25

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    Column chairman of the Foundation for Scientific Education and Research NLDA topics, such as scientific integrity, the Ph.D. policy and bibliometrics (e.g. citation analysis). Another achievement was the succesful audit of the NLDA’s University Teaching Qualification (BKO), a quality mark of the didactic capability of academic staff, by a commission of external experts. The commission has granted the NLDA, under the auspices of SWOON, the right to issue the BKO qualification to its educational staff. Besides, important steps have been taken in the NLDA Council to devise a specific Military Technical Master’s Degree programme in the near future, to be modelled on typically military requirements. Such a Master fits the recognition that our military forces are more and more dependent on knowledge and technology for military missions in the next decade. Late 2014 a new five-year strategic road-map for the development of the Faculty was concluded by the SWOON Board and forwarded to the Chief of Defence for endorsement by the NLDA Council. The Board appreciates the valuable advice on many of the issues supplied by the Scientific Advisory Council [Wetenschappelijke Adviesraad, WAR] under the revered chairmanship of Prof mr A.H.A. (Fred) Soons. Looking ahead, the SWOON expects to enhance the Faculty’s record on scientific research, as increasing The Board of the Foundation for Scientific Education and numbers of officers are engaged in Ph.D. studies, Research NLDA (SWOON), responsible for maintaining providing them with a unique combination of military the quality of both scientific education and research at operational experience and scientific knowledge. In the Faculty of Military Sciences, can look back on 2014 line with that ambition, the Faculty wishes to obtain as being a busy and successful year. The Master’s degree the right to bestow doctorates for the benefit of both programme, which started in 2013, has proven to be a students and scientific staff. Measures have been taken success amongst military as well as civilian students. to expand the Faculty’s research capacity through (inter) The evaluation of the programme showed that the national co-operation in project-based external funding. students are very content with the well- taught and well- structured lectures, the high level of the guest lectures The Board of SWOON sees 2015 as a year of consolidation and the interaction between students and academic after a period of budget-driven reorganization as well as a staff. year of working towards new ambitions. The international security situation today – more than ever in the post- 2014 was the year in which the reorganization of the Cold War years – requires that the NLDA provides the Faculty, following the defence budget cuts, took effect. Netherlands Armed Forces with leaders who have had the The Board expresses its satisfaction with the way the best mental preparation and scientific education. Faculty staff has carried through this reorganization, without disrupting the education and research Lieutenant-General RNLAF (retd.) Dr. Dirk Starink programmes. In order to prepare the evaluation of the Chairman of the Foundation for Scientific Education research programme, due in 2017, several actions were and Research NLDA taken and discussed at a widely-attended Research Day in Amsterdam, during which FMS researchers discussed Education and Research Report 2014< 27

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    Positive assessment of European Joint Master’s in Strategic Border Management For more than two years academic staff of the Faculty of With the Joint European Master’s degree programme Military Sciences, together with colleagues of the Royal in strategic border management they aim to provide Netherlands Marechaussee (RNLM), have worked on an border officials throughout the EU with academic EU-wide project on the development of a joint Master’s knowledge and skills to improve the management of Course in Strategic Border Management. In December the EU’s external borders. 2014 the programme of the Master’s was assessed by an independent commission consisting of international All EU countries have organised border management in experts, who concluded that the programme meets the accordance with their own principles and legislation. terms of education at university level. The first group Also, regardless of the Bologna Agreements on the of students will start the accredited Master’s in the structure of academic degree programmes across academic year 2015-2016. Europe, the Ministries of Education of the EU member states are also bound by their own national legislation The European Agency for the Management of on higher education. Therefore, the preparation of the Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of extensive detailed documentation for this assessment the Member States of the European Union (Frontex) was a challenge for the different European academic took the initiative for the development of the Master’s partners and border guard organisations involved. course. From 2010, due to increasing unrest and instability in the Middle East and the expansion of the European Union towards the East, various EU countries have acknowledged the need for academic training in the field of border management. 28 > Education and Research Report 2014

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    Positive judgement Researching Integrated Practices During the assessment of the Master’s the Commission The emphasis in this module is on qualitative research was impressed by the extensive documentation techniques (e.g. interviews, case studies, observations) provided by Frontex, but even more so by the intensive and scientific writing and presentation skills. This European collaboration that made this Master possible. module provides the students with a basic introduction Teaching and developing staff have met on a regular to qualitative methods and their qualities (validation, basis over the past two years, in for instance Spain, reliability, generalization, etcetera) relevant to conduct Estonia, the Netherlands and Romania. Although such a study of their own, leading to a case study this was time-consuming, it was important to create research report. widespread support in the participating countries. In addition, the students will integrate the knowledge The Commission is somewhat worried about the study gained from previous topics covered in all the modules load for the students, but also about the work load for of the programme. Besides, during a field visit, they the teaching staff at the various institutions. For most will learn from the specialists who are embedded in teachers, the Frontex Master comes on top of their a border surveillance organization. Both methods regular activities. modules provide the students with quantitative and qualitative knowledge and skills and prepare them for Contribution to modules writing their final dissertations. FMS will contribute to three modules of the Master’s programme: Fundamental Rights and Ethics, Researching Management Practices and Researching Integrated Practices. Besides, together with the consortium partners, the Faculty of Military Sciences will take a fair share in supervising Master theses. Fundamental Rights and Ethics Fundamental rights and ethics are integral to every aspect of border guarding. Issues in this field will, therefore, be part of all modules. The aim of this particular module is to provide all students with the basics of fundamental rights and ethics, which is a prerequisite for being able to recognize such issues in the other modules. Although the emphasis is on fundamental rights and ethics in the working environment, more theoretical notions in law and ethics are not absent; they form the basis for every informed discussion on these topics. Researching Management Practices The aim of the module Researching Management Practices in Border Security is to prepare the students for conducting quantitative investigations (e.g. constructing a simple questionnaire and evaluating and interpreting the data obtained) within their own organisation culminating in the submission of a research report. Thereby they will be able to apply the research methods for analysing (complex) management problems in daily work situations. Education and Research Report 2014< 29

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    Opening Academic Year in the spirit of a troubled world This year the opening of the academic year took place Thesis Award in a rather special military setting, namely in the Port Every year during the Opening Ceremony the FMS of Den Helder on board the naval vessel Zr. Ms.(HMS) presents an award to the author of the best Bachelor Johan de Witt. The Dutch representative to the thesis. The originator of the prize, Commander (rtd) European Union, His Excellency drs. Pieter de Gooijer, Ir Hein Sabelis, former Dean of the FMS, awarded the was the keynote speaker at the ceremony on 28 August. prize himself. Midshipman Heleen Sikkes received the In his address he urged academic staff and students to Hein Sabelis Thesis Award for her thesis with the title contribute to a growing European cooperation. ‘Dress with beard’, a case-study into the cultural frames with regard to Muslims cadets of the initial officer More than military training course of the Royal Netherlands Army. The According to De Gooijer, recent events in, for example, thesis received the highest grade. the Ukraine and Iraq beg the extension of Europe’s military power, creating a broader scope for European Researcher of the year collaboration, also in the field of education and Every year the Permanent Committee for research. Scientific Research [Vaste Commissie voor Wetenschapsbeoefening] of the FMS nominates At the same time he noted that the distinction between a ‘Researcher of the Year’. On account of his soldier and diplomat, development assistant and extraordinary research achievements Dr Ir Bas Rietjens, trade developer, private and public sector, is becoming Senior Lecturer of Management Information Services, increasingly blurred. Therefore, the armed forces received the title of Researcher of the Academic Year increasingly employ personnel that are more than 2013-2014. military. The Dutch representative hopes that the NLDA will be able to contribute to that development. Armed Forces Top Executives Course In his speech the Commandant of the Netherlands Defence Academy, Major General Theo Vleugels, acknowledged the importance of partnerships, both national and international, for the Academy. He revealed his plans for a part-time course for armed forces’ top executives (Top Defensie Vorming), which participants from other countries and departments also have the possibility to join. This is an investment in the future of armed forces’ top management and meets the lifetime-learning philosophy of the NLDA. Future In his speech Professor Dr Henrik Rudolph, Dean of the FMS, challenged all the operational commands to think about the future field of activity of the officers and the academic competences that belong to that field. He presented the first copy of the 18th edition of the Netherlands Annual Review of Military Studies, entitled Optimal Deployment of Military Systems. Technologies for military missions in the next decade, to Admiral Mathieu Borsboom. 30 > Education and Research Report 2014

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    Highlights of dissertations At the Faculty of Military Sciences, both civil and In 2014, five Ph.D. students obtained their doctorate. military Ph.D. students work on their dissertations. These are being discussed below, as well as three Their research fits within one of the Strategic doctoral studies that are in progress. Research Orientations, which form the basis for the FMS research programme. * TNO is the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Toegepast natuurwetenschappelijk onderzoek [Dutch organisation for The FMS distinguishes four categories of Ph.D. applied physical science research] students; so-called TNO* - Ph.D. students, funded by the armed forces’ funding budget; military Ph.D. students earmarked by their operational commands to do research; Ph.D. students that are financed by external sources, and Ph.D. students funded from the FMS research budget. The latter group, consisting of three students, will phase out in 2015. Five completed dissertations Electrochemical Noise: A Clear Corrosion Signature Author: Lieutenant (N) Dr Ir Axel Homborg In his research Homborg aimed at a new way of measuring corrosion, which is in fact a natural Corrosion, or process that excites its own electrical signals. By rust, poses recording these signals, he actually ‘listens’ to a recurring corrosion. That already has been a known fact problem for some time; the same goes for the application on Dutch of noise measurement of corrosion. However, naval vessels. until now it has been difficult to give a sound Lieutenant interpretation of the information from the (N) Dr Ir Axel measurements. Homborg, With this method, that distinguishes varied noise lecturer and signals, it is not only possible to identify the researcher different forms of corrosion, but also to predict the at the NLDA, condition of the material. In that way the navy can rose to the indeed better estimate when a vessel needs to be challenge decommissioned. Likewise, it becomes possible to to find a draw up a flexible and custom-made maintenance solution for plan per vessel, enabling the navy to prevent unsafe this problem. situations from happening and save a lot of money Thanks to the in the long run. ‘Homborg- method’ the Dutch armed forces are better able Besides the NLDA, the technical university of Delft, to predict the infraction of metal constructions Endures B.V. and the Materials Innovation Institute in vessels due to which maintenance costs will be worked on this Ph.D. project. lower and the safety of the vessels will increase. 32 > Education and Research Report 2014

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    A GPS inspired Terrain Referenced Navigation algorithm fault and compensate for it. Author: Dr Daniela Vaman With the accuracy that can be accomplished with this TRN technique, for certain applications it offers a good alternative Satellite navigation systems like GPS and Galileo, which compared to the vulnerable GPS and Galileo systems and it the armed forces use, are vulnerable because they can can prevent hostile disruptions from fire-delivering systems deliberately be disturbed by an opponent. Therefore, it is and GPS controlled bombs. important that the armed forces have back-up systems at their disposal that can also assess the position of an object. The doctoral student developed a range of algorithms based Daniela Vaman, former researcher at the Netherlands on tailing GPS signals and suppressing disruptions from Defence Academy, examined which technique offers a good these signals, but now optimized for a signal which consists alternative for vulnerable satellite navigation systems. of a sequence of space measurements to the terrain. Positioning takes place by finding the hereby corresponding Vaman researched whether positioning on the basis of series in an existing database. She tested the algorithm terrain-contour plotting (the so-called Terrain Referenced by means of computer simulations using various terrain Navigation, or TRN) can gain from modern signal processing contour plots and altimetries with several types of sensors. techniques. The technique that she developed, known as adaptive tracking loop, is based on small, deliberately Daniela Vaman worked for the FMS until 2014. At the applied disturbances in the control loop of the TRN system moment she works as a technical consultant in the Mobile with which the system can estimate the actual measuring and Payment Practice department of UL Transaction Security. On Military Memoirs. They were deployed Soldier-authors, Publishers, Plots and Motives alone, for instance as a Author: Lieutenant-Colonel (AF) Dr Esmeralda Kleinreesink Until now, research into military memoirs was often an Anglo-American and always a qualitative affair. This study, however, takes a completely new approach to researching soldier-authors in order to answer four main questions: doctor or automation • Who are these soldier-authors? • Who publishes them? On Military Memoirs expert. They chose to • What do they write about? • Why do they say they write? Soldier-authors, publishers, plots and motives Memoirs of military personnel deployed to Afghanistan Every Afghanistan autobiography published between 2001 and 2010 by a soldier, whether published by a traditional publisher or self-published, is statistically researched. Not only all publish their books often have a positive tone. That a mere 39 percent of the books from English speaking countries such as the US, the UK and Canada, but also every memoir written in Germany and the Netherlands. In an easy to follow writing style, even for people without a statistical background, by themselves rather autobiographies have a storyline characterized by disillusion it provides factual data on these authors and their work that is often surprising. But this book is not only about numbers, as it combines this quantitative research with than by an established appears from Esmeralda Kleinreesink’s Ph.D. research into This mixed method, cross cultural approach not only answers the basic who, what and why questions, but makes it also possible to answer all sorts of other questions military and egodocument researchers, but also publishers have long wondered about: Are soldier- publisher. the Afghanistan-memoirs. Another conclusion from her authors a special breed among soldiers, or not? Do soldiers from different countries write about different things, or is there just one, shared military experience in all these countries? And do self-published books differ from books published by traditional publishers? research is that these books are not written because it helps This book will provide all these answers, and many more. Finally, Kleinreesink the military writers cope with their experiences. dismisses the idea that Officier in Afghanistan, Meulenhoff, the military authors After any war military memoirs have been written. University Rotterdam and English and is a certified primarily write down Lieutenant-Colonel Kleinreesink examined all 54 Afghanistan their experiences memoirs that were published between 2001 and 2010 in L.H.E. (Esmeralda) Kleinreesink because this helps them the Netherlands, Germany, the USA, the UK and Canada. in coping. This reason She did not only examine the literary contents, but also the is only rarely referred to publication of the books. by the military writers and, when it is, only by individually deployed military. Gaining acknowledgement for their work Whether a military autobiography has a positive or negative in Afghanistan, helping others and bringing about positive storyline appears to be well predictable on the basis of the change, like a better understanding in civilian society or characteristics of the writer. Authors who still work for the within the armed forces, are uniformly mentioned as the Ministry of Defence when their book is published have a main reasons for writing. positive outlook, whereas combat soldiers usually write in a less positive vein, even when they are still armed forces’ Lieutenant-Colonel Esmeralda Kleinreesink works as an employees. academic lecturer at the Netherlands Defence Academy. She herself also wrote a military autobiography about Kleinreesink finds it remarkable that almost half of the Afghanistan: Officier in Afghanistan [Officer in Afghanistan] military authors were not part of a team when on mission. (Meulenhoff, 2012). 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    Multimodal surveillance. Lefter’s research prompts a solution in the shape of Behaviour analysis for recognizing stress and using an automatic surveillance system that alerts aggression security staff at certain moments so as to keep an eye Author: Dr Iulia Lefter on what is happening in certain places. This reduces the number of missed incidents due to distraction and looking at preferred screens. The system recognizes, besides violence, also negative emotions and stress that can precede violence. By recognizing emotions at an early stage, it is possible to prevent violence. With own scenarios and semi-professional actors the researcher built a dataset consisting of video images. To be able to recognize stress and aggression she filtered all kinds of characteristics from these video recordings. Lefter developed a method that can be used for making predictions about stress and aggression levels with new video Security guards watch video images from camera recordings. systems installed on military and large public The developed system can be built into existing terrains looking for unwanted behavior and video surveillance systems. According to Lefter incidents 24/7. The attention of the staff can waver it is desirable to test the system in a military due to various causes. Some incidents, like gun- environment. related and riotous behaviour, are hard to discover with only video images. Therefore, incidents can The research for multimodal video surveillance sometimes not be properly assessed and the video systems was a cooperation between the Netherlands images are consulted afterwards. Defence Academy, TNO and the technical university of Delft. An experimental and theoretical investigation into better predicted. three-body abrasive wear When sand gets into a machine and gets stuck between Author: Dr Martijn Woldman components that are in sliding contact, for example, in cog wheel constructions and ball bearings, abrasive Dr Martijn Woldman has developed a maintenance wear will occur on the contact areas. concept whereby it is possible to predict the maintenance intervals and lifespan of engines that Abrasion is the form of wear that is caused by a gliding operate in sandy conditions. He used the infantry movement of hard grains or roughness on a softer Combat Vehicle 90 (CV90) as subject of the case study surface. A distinction is made by second-body abrasion in his Ph.D. research. and third-body abrasion. The former means that one of the contact areas causes wear and with the latter Woldman has researched the influence of the size and there is an ‘alien’ body between the contact areas, shape of the grains of sand on the wear of material. which causes wear. In Woldmans’ research it is a matter By means of a numeric model he reproduced the of third-body abrasive wear, since the grains of sand development of scratch as a result of the sliding activate the wear. movement of a molded grain of sand by a steel surface. By applying Woldman’s research results to the Dr Martijn Woldman carried out his research in maintenance concept the maintenance intervals and cooperation with TNO, the University of Twente and life span of, for example, the wheels of the CV90 can be the Netherlands Defence Academy. 34 > Education and Research Report 2014

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    Three doctoral studies in progress The effects of military education at the Royal provide insights into the relationship between the nature of Netherlands Military Academy on the practices of military education, and specifically socialization, on the one military leadership hand, and the Ph.D. researcher: Marenne Jansen MA manifestations of military Contemporary military and peacekeeping missions become leadership, on more and more complex. Challenges include the ethical the other. and operational complexities with which servicemen are Ms. Jansen confronted during operations. Military leaders need to started her develop social, moral and psychological competencies to research at the handle the ambiguities and pressures of modern conflict. Netherlands Therefore military leadership development is considered Defence extremely important within the defence organization. Academy in August 2014. The first half year she spent on doing The aim of Ph.D. researcher Marenne Jansen, also related preliminary interviews with officers, a literature research to the Radboud University and TNO, is to understand how and designing the research plan. The coming years she will the training mechanisms at the Royal Netherlands Military collect data, both at the Netherlands Defence Academy, as Academy (RNMLA) influence leadership performance, well as in the field. The outcome of this dissertation will specifically with regard to their professional behaviour contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms of during operations. To understand the effects of military military education, and its effects on the performance of education on the practices of military leadership, Marenne will military leadership. Urban Security A city is a diverse mix of people and processes, with its own Ph.D. researcher: Captain (A) Rick Krosenbrink MSc self-organizing dynamic. In the most abstract way the research of Rick Krosenbrink will contribute to the understanding of Future wars the ‘organized complexity’ of the city and the role of security in will be fought this environment. Krosenbrink will challenge the concept and in cities. To construct of security by focusing on the relationship of security influence and (public) space. the possible The research is shaped around a broad central question: What outcomes of is the influence of urban design on security? And in what way these future can the urban landscape be adjusted so that it contributes wars a thorough to human security, civil empowerment and community understanding resilience? Before talking about urban warfare, the issue of of urban understanding urban security should be addressed. surroundings This research analyses security issues and carries out research is indispensable, especially in preventing the escalation of a on future-proof security concepts, in which openness is conflict. Currently the Dutch armed forces are conducting a key instead of exclusion and fear. Rick is determined to find broad variety of activities in preparing for urban operations. positive dynamics in the ongoing process of securitization. With his research Krosenbrink will contribute to the In 2014 he wrote his research proposal and was accepted as a understanding of the ‘organised complexity’ of the city and Ph.D. students at the Faculty of Architecture at Delft University the role of security in this environment. Thereby he aims of Technology. He presented his starting concept in several to contribute to the armed forces’ preparations for urban forums, including the International Society of Military Sciences operations by creating a modern and solid theoretical basis for at the Austrian National Defence Academy. This year he will understanding urban security issues. These will be based on publish two articles that will form the conceptual framework design analyses of communities in both Afghanistan and the for his research. Besides his research he will be attending the Netherlands (and possibly Mali). Doctoral Education Programme of TU Delft. Education and Research Report 2014< 35

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    Targeting of force, and whether the use of remotely-operated Ph.D. researcher: Lieutenant (MC) Mark Roorda LLM weapons is distinct from this development. In this sense, Roorda’s research will investigate whether this new technology revolutionizes warfare or whether it is ‘merely’ a logical step in acquiring and using means that are necessary to face adapting opponents. Issues such as risk-free war, risk-transfer, play station mentality, signature strikes and leadership targeting will be scrutinized. This research will be unique in offering a balanced, multidisciplinary account of both military operational requirements and relevant regulating norms. One of Mark’s hypotheses is that these two elements might not be so far apart as is often suggested. The research results can be used to determine During the last fifteen years the use of armed the extent to which remote weapon technologies Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) for engaging can be incorporated into the Netherlands (and ground targets has increased significantly. other) defence structures and whether there are Unmanned weapon platforms have been used for concerns that must be addressed in effectively and regular combat missions in Afghanistan, Libya, legitimately using them for targeting purposes. Iraq and Syria, as well as for counter-terrorism It could, therefore, lead to recommendations for operations in Pakistan, Somalia and Yemen. The improving targeting procedures, particularly to practice of using targeting assets that are not facilitate transparency and accountability. Over the inhibited by humans has provoked extensive debate past year, Mark has formulated his research design on the morality and legality thereof; a debate that and started collecting and analyzing data on the has gained importance since it appears that such evolution of targeting, as well as on the procedures technology is rapidly proliferating. that states have adopted to perform targeting in armed conflict. These elements will serve as a basis The aim of Roorda’s Ph.D. research is to facilitate for assessing the uniqueness of remotely-operated further debate on the legitimacy of the military weapon platforms and identifying the main use of remotely-operated weapon platforms by concerns about their use. contributing to a common understanding of operational targeting procedure and how relevant legal norms are incorporated into such procedures. Mark will analyse how military targeting has evolved over time, how states have adopted procedures aimed at effective and legitimate use 36 > Education and Research Report 2014

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    Civil-military working relationships Defence organizations comprise both military and civil personnel are representatives of the Netherlands in the NATO task working in partnership with each other. Although civil-military group, which is aimed at extending our understanding working relationships and work culture have largely remained of military and civilian work culture and relations. unexplored so far, as evidenced by international requests for information, it is an important human resources issue in defence Results so far organizations. Together with eight other NATO countries, the International comparisons still need to be made, but Netherlands actively participate in a NATO task group that based on the research results so far Andres and Soeters cultivates knowledge of the cooperation between military and can already conclude that there are differences in civilian defence personnel. On behalf of the Faculty of Military relations between military and civil staff within defence Sciences of the Netherlands Defence Academy, Professor Dr Sjo organisations which prompt research questions such Soeters and Dr Manon Andres, both researchers at the FMS, as: what underlies these differences and are there also participate in this project. differences in work relations? It is striking to note that amongst interviewed senior military commanders and policymakers the notion exists that there are no urgent issues concerning work relations between military and civilian personnel, but commanders and policymakers described clear differences that may give rise to issues in the future. Moreover, the research shows that mainly in the field of leadership and supervision there are important points of interest e.g. aspects of fairness and perceptions of fairness of service personnel and civilian employees. Defence organizations are unique in that they comprise integrated military and civilian workforces Expected outcome that, although they often work closely together The results of the project, forthcoming in 2016, will be (e.g. at headquarters, on bases, on operations, at relevant for both military as well as civilian supervisors. military educational institutions), are governed by The research group’s objective is, amongst others, very different personnel management systems and to develop, operationalize, and test a conceptual have very distinct cultures. These factors can affect the model for military and civilian work culture and nature of the collaboration between these integrated relations, identifying challenges and enablers of workforces and influence both personnel outcomes effective civil-military interaction and collaboration in and organizational effectiveness. There are significant defence organizations. Besides, ‘ best practices’ will be gaps in the empirical research of this fundamental formulated with regard to personnel management. issue affecting military organizations. Manon Andres, university lecturer of Organisation Science and Management, and Sjo Soeters, Professor of Military Organisational Science and Management, Education and Research Report 2014< 37

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    38 > Education and Research Report 2014

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    List of abbreviations A Army, for example in Colonel (A) SWOON Stichting Wetenschappelijk Onderwijs en AF Air Force (AF), for example in Colonel (AF) Onderzoek NLDA AREPS Advanced Refractive Effects Prediction In translation: Foundation for Education System and Research NLDA BKO Basis Kwalificatie Onderwijs TNO Nederlandse Organisatie voor Toegepast In translation: University Teaching natuurwetenschappelijk onderzoek Qualification In translation: Dutch organisation for applied physical science research C2 Command and Control TRN Terrain Referenced Navigation CV90 Combat Vehicle 90 UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle DMO Defence Materiel Organisation VSNU Vereniging van Samenwerkende EM Electromagnetic Nederlandse Universiteiten FMS Faculty of Military Sciences In translation: the association of Frontex European Agency for the Management of cooperative Dutch universities Operational Cooperation at the External VU Vrije Universiteit Borders of the Member States of the In translation: Free University European Union WAR Wetenschappelijke Adviesraad IDL Instituut Defensie Leergangen In translation: Scientific Advisory Board In translation: Netherlands Defence College WS War Studies KMA Koninklijke Militaire Academie In translation: Royal Netherlands Military Academy LCM Life Cycle Management M Marechaussee, for example in Colonel (M) MALE Medium Altitude Long Endurance MaSeLMa Integrated Maintenance and Service Logistics Concepts for Maritime Assets MC Marine Corps MMS Military Management Studies MoD Ministry of Defence MSS Military Strategic Studies MS&T Military Systems and Technology N Navy, for example in Colonel (N) NCO Network Centric Operations NLDA Netherlands Defence Academy RNLM Royal Netherlands Marechaussee RNMLA Royal Netherlands Military Academy SRO Strategic Research Orientation Education and Research Report 2014< 39

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    Colophon ‘Faculty of Military Sciences in perspective’ is the yearly education and research report of the Faculty of Military Sciences in Breda and Den Helder, which is part of the Netherlands Defence Academy. Editorial department: Faculty of Military Sciences, P.O. 90004, 3509 AA Utrecht, MPC 55A, e-mail: fej.d.pee.vencken@mindef.nl Text: Frederieke de Pee-Vencken MA Photography: Mediacentrum Defensie Design: Merel de Hart, Multimedia Netherlands Defence Academy Print: Repro department Royal Military Academy in Breda All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of the Faculty of Military Sciences.

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